For citation purposes: Solanke KS, Bhatnagar R, Pokhrel R. Number and position of nutrient foramina in humerus, radius and ulna of human dry bones of Indian origin with clinical correlation. OA Anatomy 2014 Feb 01;2(1):4.

Original research study

 
Clinical Anatomy

Number and position of nutrient foramina in humerus, radius and ulna of human dry bones of Indian origin with clinical correlation

KS Solanke, R Bhatnagar, R Pokhrel
 

Authors affiliations

Department of Anatomy, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune 40, Maharashtra, India

* Corresponding author Email: drkirtipawarsolanke@gmail.com

Abstract

Introduction

The aim of the study was to evaluate the number and position of the nutrient foramina in the humerus, radius and ulna of dry bones of Indian origin and correlate the findings clinically.

Materials and Methods

Among 260 bones studied, 100 (56 right and 44 left) were humeri and 80 (40 left and 40 right) radii and 80 ulnae (40 left and 40 right). Location and number of nutrient foramina were analysed, and length of bone, distance of nutrient foramina from proximal end of bone, anteroposterior and transverse diameters at the level of nutrient foramina were measured. Statistical analysis was performed for central tendency. Student’s t-test was used to assess statistically significant correlation between number of nutrient foramina and size of bone. Foraminal index was calculated using Hughes formula.

Results

All bones had nutrient foramina directed towards the elbow. Mean distances of nutrient foramina from proximal ends were 17.70 ± 2.12, 8.39 ± 2.33 and 9.00 ± 1.55 cm for humerus, radius and ulna, respectively. Nutrient foramen was absent in 4% humeri, 5% radii and 3.75% ulnae, and double in 4% humeri and 2.5% radii. No correlation was found between number of nutrient foramina and size of bones, i.e. length or diameter. Majority (76.92%) of bones had nutrient foramina in the middle third of the shaft; whereas the distal third was a rare position. Nutrient foramina were most commonly present in the anteromedial surface for the humerus (67%) and anterior surface for both radius (66.25%) and ulna (76.62%).

Conclusion

The study provides important information about morphology and topography of nutrient foramina in upper limb long bones and knowledge of which is useful in planning orthopaedic procedures.

Licensee OA Publishing London 2014. Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY)
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