Department of Anatomy, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune 40, Maharashtra, India
* Corresponding author Email: email@example.com
The aim of the study was to evaluate the number and position of the nutrient foramina in the humerus, radius and ulna of dry bones of Indian origin and correlate the findings clinically.
Materials and Methods
Among 260 bones studied, 100 (56 right and 44 left) were humeri and 80 (40 left and 40 right) radii and 80 ulnae (40 left and 40 right). Location and number of nutrient foramina were analysed, and length of bone, distance of nutrient foramina from proximal end of bone, anteroposterior and transverse diameters at the level of nutrient foramina were measured. Statistical analysis was performed for central tendency. Student’s
All bones had nutrient foramina directed towards the elbow. Mean distances of nutrient foramina from proximal ends were 17.70 ± 2.12, 8.39 ± 2.33 and 9.00 ± 1.55 cm for humerus, radius and ulna, respectively. Nutrient foramen was absent in 4% humeri, 5% radii and 3.75% ulnae, and double in 4% humeri and 2.5% radii. No correlation was found between number of nutrient foramina and size of bones, i.e. length or diameter. Majority (76.92%) of bones had nutrient foramina in the middle third of the shaft; whereas the distal third was a rare position. Nutrient foramina were most commonly present in the anteromedial surface for the humerus (67%) and anterior surface for both radius (66.25%) and ulna (76.62%).
The study provides important information about morphology and topography of nutrient foramina in upper limb long bones and knowledge of which is useful in planning orthopaedic procedures.