Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, 38 Morohongo, Moroyama-machi, Saitama 350-0495, Japan
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Osteoblasts and bone marrow adipocytes originate from bone marrow stromal cells. In senile osteoporosis, the balance between adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis in bone marrow stromal cells is disrupted such that adipogenesis is increased with respect to osteoblastogenesis resulting in decrease in bone mass.
In general, there appears to be a reciprocal relationship between adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis in bone marrow stromal cells. Although several proteins have been reported to regulate this process, the exact nature of the signals regulating the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte formation within the bone marrow space remains to be determined.
Recently, transducin-like enhancer of split 3 (TLE3) was reported to regulate the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte formation. TLE3 enhances adipocyte differentiation and suppresses osteoblast differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells
Currently, there is demand for new effective therapies that target the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation to enhance bone formation. Reducing TLE3 expression in bone marrow stromal cells could be a useful approach towards increasing osteoblast numbers and reducing adipogenesis in the bone marrow environment. Thus, the development of a therapy that combines small interfering RNAs against TLE3 with a local delivery system targeting bone marrow stromal cells could lead to novel bone formation agonist.