(1) Department of Clinical Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
(2) Department of Nephrology and Urology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
(3) Department of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
Corresponding author Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The incidence and spectrum of kidney disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected patients have been altered by the diffused use of highly active antiretroviral therapy; indeed, acute and chronic kidney disease has emerged as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected population. Risk factors associated with kidney disease in such Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected population include aging, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, co-infection with hepatitis C virus, low CD4 cell count, and high Human Immunodeficiency Virus viral load. The aim of this review was to discuss nephropathies in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected patients.
Materials and Methods
We conduct a review on the actual knowledge of acute and chronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus-associated renal disease, metabolic alterations and related nephropathies, and the side effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
We examined all the randomised controlled trial sand quasi-randomised controlled trials that evaluate the current knowledge on acute and chronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus and highly active antiretroviral therapy associated renal disease. After quality appraisal, 170 met the inclusion criteria for the review. The studies included in the review were grouped into two areas: nephropathy Human Immunodeficiency Virus associated and nephropathy highly active antiretroviral therapy associated.
Early identification and treatment of kidney disease is imperative for preventing further renal damage in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected populations and for instituting appropriate management efficiently. The Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines recommend urinalysis and estimation of kidney function for all Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected persons at the time of Human Immunodeficiency Virus diagnosis. Periodic monitoring of albuminuria, tubular parameters such as low-molecular-weight proteinuria, and the estimated glomerular filtration rate may be useful for early diagnosis of patients at risk for acute or chronic renal disease.