(1) Institute of Scientific Homeopathy, Germany
(2) European Committee for Homeopathy (ECH), Praxis Natura-Sanat, Burgstr.112, CH-4125 Riehen, Switzerland
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Homeopathy, a complementary healing method to cure body and mind, was founded by Samuel Hahnemann (1755–1843). He produced highly potentised remedies from minerals, plants, venoms or animals, and succussed them 10 times after every dilution step. From the exceeded Avogadro constant, it had been clarified that there were no molecules left in the highly diluted solutions. According to Hahnemann's Law of Similars (
The credibility of homeopathy including the production of homeopathic remedies, the reproducibility of provings, clinical trials and research experiments will give it a chance to obtain a scientific base and appreciation in natural sciences. This is a propensity for ill people being cured without any side effects and esoteric ideas.
Until now, there was no possibility to perform quality controls of homeopathic remedies. There is much doubt about the possible healing effect of succussed dilutions having exceeded Avogadro constant in patients or in successful clinical trials and research experiments. As long as the working mechanism of homeopathic remedies is not clarified, all homeopathic fundamental laws and trials are called into question. Since Lenger[1,2,3] detected photons with frequencies in the megahertz region using highly potentised remedies by two magnetic resonance methods, a quality control of homeopathic remedies is possible. These results led to new considerations about the Law of Similars, which can be now expressed as follows: the frequencies of the homeopathic remedy photons must match those of the patients. The different manufacturing methods of remedies must be investigated, because the question arises: is an ethanolic distinct remedy comparable with an aqueous remedy of the same potency? A renewed consideration of provings, clinical trials, and biochemical and biophysical experiments has to be done. Finally, a biochemical and biophysical model of homeopathic function is discussed.
The authors have referenced some of their own studies in this review. These studies were conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki (1964) and the protocols of these studies were approved by the relevant ethics committees related to the institution in which they were performed. All human subjects in these referenced studies gave informed consent to participate. All authors followed the Association for Medical Ethics (AME) ethical rules of disclosure.
There are different methods of production of homeopathic remedies. Hahnemann's prescriptions of producing homeopathic remedies from ethanolic extracts (43–87%, mother tinctures) of plants, insects or snake venoms to high potencies by dilution and succussion are originally described in the Homöopathisches Arzneibuch (HAB). Dilution steps are 1:10 (D-potencies), 1:100 (C-potencies) and 1:50000 (LM1, LM2 or Q-potencies). Concentrations are maintained and succussion is done manually 10 times. This method is called several glass-vessel method.
The one-glass-vessel method is applied to produce Korsakovian potencies altering Hahnemann's manufacturing method of C-potencies. The concentration is not maintained exactly. Only a “drop” is left in the vessel that is refilled with ethanol and again succussed. Another sort of potencies called Fincke potencies are produced by continuous stirring of mother tincture alternating with water and ethanol. Another method describes that after the second potentising steps, ethanol is replaced by water. The two required last potencies are potentised in ethanol again. In some countries homeopathic remedies are produced in water.
Medicated saccharose globules are produced by pouring the desired ethanolic potency onto pure saccharose globules. Tablets are manufactured by dilution and trituration of a dry substance in
Ethanolic (43–87%) mother tinctures contain water- and ethanol-soluble substances. Amazingly, it is reported that nanoparticles[7,8] exist in highly diluted and succussed homeopathic potencies beyond Avogadro's number (6 × 1023 solved particles exist in 1 mol/l), which normally means that no more atoms or molecules exist in these potencies. Generally it is well known that only solved substances can be potentised. Nanoparticles are not solved and cannot be potentised. These nanoparticles accompany the dilutions during the production process randomly. Some of the reasons are as follows: (1) the dilutions are not filtered or centrifuged during manufacturing; residual non-soluble nanoparticles are in the mother tincture. (2)Nanoparticles can be produced by the succussion steps destroying the protein structures and denaturing proteins. (3)Nanoparticles[9,10] are solved by the aqueous or ethanolic homeopathic remedies from the glass or polyethylene vessel. (4) During the manufacturing process, a change from ethanol to water will result in precipitation of the ethanol-soluble substances as nanoparticles. This step might have consequences for the produced remedy: its corresponding symptom picture in the
The photons are probably created in low and high potencies by the succussion steps by an energy called Lorentz force. The produced photons magnetically bound to the carrier substances, water, ethanol and saccharose globules, have higher affinities for bigger molecules[1,2,3]. All photons of ethanolic dilutions are transferred to saccharose globules, which is confirmed by the Lenger's experiments.
The separation of the photons from their carrier substance has been proved by measuring the potency levels using Lenger's two methods[1,2,3]. A distinct magnetic resonance frequency field separates the photons from their carrier substance and the number of photons is characteristic for each potency level[1,3]. The stability of remedies increases with the increasing molecule size of their carrier[3,13].
The production of photons,
where h is Planck's constant, c light velocity,
Two hundred years ago, Hahnemann proposed the method to change matter into energy by the production of remedies and vice versa. Healing by taking remedies means helping the body to create a new healthy matter.
Healthy volunteers took a special remedy (e.g. C200) of a substance several times. They reported about the proving symptoms of the body and mind[11,12] with opposite symptoms, indicating a stimulation or an inhibition of biochemical pathways, which may depend on the different congenital diseases of the volunteers.
The used remedies, which are produced by different methods, containing different nanoparticles causing side effects[7,8,9,10] will lead to non-comparable results. If the remedies are produced according to only one of the methods of the HAB and in glass vessels, the proving symptoms will then be comparable with each other.
In provings, enzymes are stimulated or inhibited, which shows the poisoning. Homeopaths neglect the toxicology, indicating which biochemical pathways are attacked and laboratory values are assuring that. It would give more credibility to homeopathy if more laboratory values would be included. Provings with highly potentised remedies mean a poisoning due to magnetic frequencies attacking the same biochemical pathways being attacked by the mother substance, finally changing the frequencies.
Often psychological problems cause a chronic illness. Only one similar remedy determineda ccording to the Law of Similars is enough for curing all diseases of the body and consciousness. This remained as a “holy law” for homeopathic doctors. Later on Hahnemann used even five remedies for one patient. He told that the chronic diseases will increase with time. He did not know the biochemical substrates, enzymes and inhibitors of a living organism. He produced homeopathic remedies derived from natural sources. It is difficult to determine similar remedies for the patient's psychological symptoms.
Today laboratory values and other medical investigations would be helpful in controlling the illness and the healing and also in indicating which disease the patient has and which biochemical pathways are pathologic.
To find the similar remedies, Lenger combined the homeopathic laws with biochemical pathways. According to Einstein's and Max Planck's equation, body and mind is one, an electromagnetic wave packet. Therefore, it is not necessary to differentiate between a psychological or a physical symptom. More important is only to find characteristic symptoms of body and/or mind.
On the basis of Schüβler's biochemistry and Harisch's experiments[16,17], Lenger developed a biochemical homeopathic therapy: substrates, inhibitors and enzymes in high potencies cured the pathological pathways of the patients and the laboratory values became normal. Sequences of biochemical homeopathic remedies in high Korsakovian potencies of the affected biochemical pathways had to be applied, for example each second day not only one C/D200 in a month, till the laboratory values became normal.
The patients get ill by going through different states like going down an energetic staircase, where each step means a state of an illness and needs one homeopathic remedy for healing. The patients show the last symptom picture of their chronic disease, mixed with symptoms of the illnesses between. Thus, different remedies are necessary for curing such patients climbing up the staircase to their healthy state using remedies involved in the pathological pathways.
The photons of the biochemical substances, which help curing, are the original similar remedies. It is known that enzymes need a lot of energy to perform the enzymatic reactions. Photons enhance the reaction energy on higher energy levels of the atoms. Förster said that each chemical reaction works on a higher energy level by uptake of energy by resonance. A living body consists of electromagnetic frequencies. The homeopathic remedies have frequencies in the megahertz region, where cells and enzymes are working. Therefore, if the Law of Similars is fulfilled, the homeopathic remedies as photons are working by resonance, there are two possibilities: to remove the incorrect frequency of the pathway or to enhance its amplitude. This underlines that the same remedy is able to cure an ill stimulation or an ill inhibition of the pathological pathways. Homeopathy is an electromagnetic regulation therapy. Today there are a number of patients having poisoning symptoms, for example caused by medicaments or by electrosmog; psychological symptoms cannot be detected. This is a state similar to a proving. Later on psychological symptoms will develop. The symptoms of the body will be checked and the remedies will be given, healing simultaneously the psychological symptoms developed.
Psora, sycosis and syphilis (Lues) are the chronic inherited diseases. Many homeopaths tried to explain them. Ortega and Klein gave a more scientific explanation. In former times, these three diseases were epidemics on the earth. Slowly these illnesses had been adapted in the genetic material, according to Darwin: Psora, translated Leprosy, including lepromatous and tuberculoid parts caused by
Anumber of publications describing clinical trials[22,23,24] are available. It is not possible to find out if they used ethanolic or aqueous remedies, but it is obvious that many are not reproducible and not able to prove homeopathy[22,23,24]. Only few trials verified by laboratory values do exist. Mostlythe proof is that one symptom was cured by only one remedy, which is confirmed subjectivelyby the patient. If there had been a strong update of laboratory values and other investigations to control the healing, it would be believable and underline the credibility of homeopathic clinical trials.
Anumber of biochemical and biophysical experiments[25,26,27,28] using homeopathic remedies are available. Here also the same problem exists, as mentioned with aqueous or ethanolic remedies. Thus it is easy to understand that some trials gave good evidence-based results and some not.
Secondly, Ives et al. used healthy enzymes and aqueous remedies in their homeopathic, biochemical experiments. There are two drawbacks. Healthy enzymes have a chance to go into a stimulation or an inhibition state in a ratio of 50:50 under a homeopathic remedy, a so-called proving had been done simultaneously creating the opposite symptoms. In these experiments there is no statistical relevance. The enzymes must be stimulated or inhibited or being in an ill state, so that the investigated enzyme is forced to react only into one direction, to its healthy state by uptaking the remedies' photons for obtaining its conformational change of DNA polymerase I by resonance.
Biophysical investigations of remedies by UV spectroscopy have been carried out and fluorescence emission spectra are interpreted as spectra of nanoparticles. The photons of remedies can only be proved by magnetic resonance methods, for example by Tesla coils or by NMR.
In general, the electromagnetic and magnetic fields have increasingly become important in biological systems[31,32,33]. Living systems emit different patterns of photons in different states, hereby underlining that a living organism changes its emitted photon pattern in ill states. Homeopathic remedies with suitable frequencies are able to attenuate them and create a healthy state again.
A living organism is a compact electromagnetic wave with frequencies in a broad spectrum. In a diseased state, its frequency pattern will change developing pathological pathways. Healing occurs by the uptake of suitable remedies. The photons of homeopathic remedies are separated from their carrier substance, water, ethanol or saccharose by their magnetic frequency. The magnetic field with distinct frequencies of the pathological pathway attacks the photons with the same frequency from the carrier substance and act by resonance: either by attenuating the disease-causing frequencies or by stimulating the amplitude.
It is necessary to develop Lenger's methods—Teslacoils and delayed luminescence measured by a photomultiplier—to perform quality controls of homeopathic remedies produced in water and ethanol. The manufacturing of homeopathic remedies should be restricted to only one original method in the HAB and to the application of only glass vessels to avoid different sorts of nanoparticles to assure the reproducibility of provings, symptom pictures, clinical trials, and biochemical and biophysical research. It is required that provings and homeopathic treatments of patients are controlled by laboratory values and other medical investigations under consideration of toxicology and biochemistry.
HAB, Homöopathisches Arzneibuch
All authors contributed to the conception, design, and preparation of the manuscript, as well as read and approved the final manuscript.
All authors abide by the Association for Medical Ethics (AME) ethical rules of disclosure.