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A 27-Year Follow-Up Of Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder – How Effective Is The Treatment Process?

A borderline personality disorder is a mental condition that impairs a person's capacity to control their emotions.

Long-term clinical results of people with borderline personality disorder have been favorable, with long-term reductions in symptoms and diagnosis.

Studies with a 27-year follow-up of patients with borderline personality disorder have shown that the overall suicide rate for this group of patients is high (about 9%). The total mortality rate, other than suicide, is higher than the general population.

What Is Borderline Personality Disorder?

A borderline personality disorder is a mental health issue that affects how you think and feel about yourself and others, producing difficulties in daily life functioning.

It involves concerns with self-esteem, difficulties controlling emotions and conduct, and a history of unstable relationships.

You have an intense fear of abandonment or instability if you have borderline personality disorder, and you may find it difficult to tolerate being alone.

Even if you desire to have meaningful and enduring relationships, improper anger, impulsiveness, and frequent mood swings may drive people away.

Borderline personality disorder often manifests itself during early adulthood.

The problem seems to worsen in early adulthood and may improve with age.

Symptoms Of Borderline Personality Disorder

Borderline personality disorder generally manifests itself in late adolescence or early adulthood.

An unpleasant incident or stressful encounter might set off or worsen symptoms.

Symptoms usually fade over time and may disappear entirely.

Symptoms may vary from mild to severe, and they may include any of the following:

  • Fear of abandonment: It is usual for persons with BPD to feel uneasy when alone. People with BPD experience great dread or rage when they believe they are being abandoned or ignored. They may follow their loved ones' movements or prevent them from leaving. To prevent rejection, they may push individuals away before getting too close.
  • Unstable, passionate connections: People with BPD struggle to maintain good personal relationships because their perspectives on others alter quickly and significantly. They may easily go from idealizing to depreciating others and vice versa. Their friendships, marriages, and family ties are often turbulent and unpredictable.
  • Unstable self-image or sense of self: People with BPD often have a distorted or confusing self-image. They frequently feel guilty or embarrassed, seeing themselves as "bad." They may also alter their self-image unexpectedly and drastically, as seen by rapidly changing their objectives, views, occupations, or friends. They also tend to undermine their advancement. For example, someone may purposefully fail a test, harm relationships, or get dismissed from a job.
  • Rapid changes in emotions: People with BPD may experience abrupt shifts in how they feel about others, themselves, and their envientrational emotions, such as rage, fear, anxiety, hate, melancholy, and love, often shift abruptly. These oscillations usually last a few hours and seldom more than a few days.
  • Impulsive and risky behavior: People with BPD are prone to reckless driving, arguing, gambling, drug abuse, binge eating, and inappropriate sexual activity.
  • Self-harm or suicidal behavior: People with BPD may cut, burn, or damage themselves (self-injury) or threaten to do so regularly; y may also consider suicide. These acts of self-destruction are often driven by rejection, possible desertion, or disappointment in a caregiver or lover.
  • Persistent sensations of emptiness: Many persons with BPD have feelings of sadness, boredom, unfulfillment, or "emptiness." Feelings of worthlessness and self-loathing are also prevalent.
  • Anger management problems: People with BPD have trouble regulating their anger and often get enraged. They may vent their rage via stinging sarcasm, bitterness, or violent tirades. Feelings of shame and anusuallyorse usually follow these outbursts.
  • Paranoid thoughts: Dissociative episodes, paranoid thoughts, and even hallucinations may be produced by intense stress, most often fear of abandonment. These symptoms are generally transient and not severe enough to be classified as distinct illnesses.

Not everyone suffering from borderline personality disorder exhibits all of these symptoms. The degree, frequency, and duration of symptoms vary from person to person.

Painting of human face in red and blue color
Painting of human face in red and blue color

Causes Of Borderline Personality Disorder

BPD, according to doctors, is caused by a mix of variables, including:

  • Up to 70% of persons with BPD had been sexually, emotionally, or physically abused as children. BPD is also linked to maternal separation, inadequate maternal bonding, incorrect family boundaries, and parental drug use disorder.
  • Borderline personality disorder seems to run in families, according to research. If you have a family history of BPD, you are more likely to acquire the illness, but not assured.
  • People with BPD have dysfunctional communication between the regions of their brain that govern emotion and behavior. These issues have an impact on how their brain functions.

Borderline Personality Disorder Assessment

J. Paris, H. Zweig-Frank, and their colleagues from McGill University in Montreal, Canada, monitored 64 individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) for 27 years.

The Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines, Revised (DIB-R), the Schedule for DSM-III-R Diagnosis (SCID), the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90), and the Social Adjustment Scale was used to measure outcome (SAS-SR).

Most patients improved significantly compared to a prior 15-year follow-up, with just five now qualifying BPD criteria.

The average GAF score was 63.3, the average SCL-90 raw score was 0.7, and the average SAS-SR score was 2.0.

Fourteen patients fulfilled SCID criteria for dysthymia, and this subgroup performed considerably worse across the board.

The original cohort's overall suicide rate has reached 10.3 percent, with 18.2 percent of all patients now dead.

People Also Ask

How Do You Cope With Borderline Personality Disorder?

  • Make an effort to obtain adequate sleep. Sleep may provide you with the energy to deal with challenging emotions and situations.
  • Consider your diet.
  • Try to engage in some physical exercise.
  • Spend some time outdoors.
  • Stay away from drugs and alcohol.

What Happens After A Diagnosis Of BPD?

Create a strategy with your mental health practitioner about what to do the next time a crisis comes.

Seek therapy for any linked issues, such as drug abuse.

Consider including family and friends in your therapy to help them understand and support you.

At What Age Does Borderline Personality Disorder Get Better?

Some aspects of borderline personality disorder are thought to improve when people approach their late 30s and early 40s.

What Are Three Complications Of BPD?

  • Babies with severe BPD may have eating difficulties and reflux.
  • Hypertension in the lungs.
  • Blood pressure is high.

Final Words

It's important to realize that borderline personality disorder is a mental illness.

Seeking care as soon as symptoms occur, like with any mental health issues, may help reduce the interruptions to life.

Treatment programs developed by mental health specialists may assist persons with borderline personality disorder in managing their thoughts and actions.

Family members and loved ones of persons with a borderline personality disorder may face stress, despair, sorrow, and isolation.

It's also important to look after your mental health and get assistance if you suffer from these symptoms.

About The Authors

Suleman Shah

Suleman Shah - Suleman Shah is a researcher and freelance writer. As a researcher, he has worked with MNS University of Agriculture, Multan (Pakistan) and Texas A & M University (USA). He regularly writes science articles and blogs for science news website immersse.com and open access publishers OA Publishing London and Scientific Times. He loves to keep himself updated on scientific developments and convert these developments into everyday language to update the readers about the developments in the scientific era. His primary research focus is Plant sciences, and he contributed to this field by publishing his research in scientific journals and presenting his work at many Conferences. Shah graduated from the University of Agriculture Faisalabad (Pakistan) and started his professional carrier with Jaffer Agro Services and later with the Agriculture Department of the Government of Pakistan. His research interest compelled and attracted him to proceed with his carrier in Plant sciences research. So, he started his Ph.D. in Soil Science at MNS University of Agriculture Multan (Pakistan). Later, he started working as a visiting scholar with Texas A&M University (USA). Shah’s experience with big Open Excess publishers like Springers, Frontiers, MDPI, etc., testified to his belief in Open Access as a barrier-removing mechanism between researchers and the readers of their research. Shah believes that Open Access is revolutionizing the publication process and benefitting research in all fields.

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