(1) Hassan II University Hospital of Fez, Fez, Morocco
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Diabetes mellitus (DM), a worldwide high prevalence metabolic disease, is associated with a large variety of musculoskeletal disorders. These manifestations are most often due to chronic hyperglycaemia. In most cases, they are associated with pain and functional disability, affecting the quality of life of diabetic patient.
Several entities that affect the upper limbs can be distinguished: diabetic cheiroarthropathy, Dupuytren’s disease, flexor tenosynovitis, De Quervain's tenosynovitis, carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. The treatment is especially based on physiotherapy, rehabilitation and a tight glycaemic control.
This article reviews some epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of these musculoskeletal manifestations of upper limbs during diabetes.
Musculoskeletal disorders are common and frequent in diabetic patients. Examination of articular and periarticular regions of the hands, shoulders and the others joints should be included in the evaluation of diabetic patients.