(1) National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS), Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bangalore, India
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The treatment of ASD is highly challenging as the causing factors and pathophysiology of the disorder is not clearly understood. It is widely believed that the major causing factor of ASD is rooted within the genes while a minor contribution of environmental factors is also taken into account. This strong belief was somehow biased by few recent studies. However, increased recurrence rate among half and full siblings of ASD families further validate the genetic predominance of this disorder. On the other hand, identification of those causing genes is a tremendous challenge for the scientists working in this field as the disorder is highly complex due to the presence of behavioural features which overlap with other psychiatric disorders. However, the progress made in the last two decades has provided deeper knowledge on genetic architecture of ASD. The main objective of this review is to discuss the issue of genetic predominance of ASD and to highlight some of the important findings and hypothesis that are promising toward identifying ASD causing genes.
The highly complex nature of ASD is the difficult challenge towards finding the cause, treatment and preventive measures of this disorder. Various studies have consistently supported the genetic involvement to be the major contributing factor on the development of this disorder. However, the causing genes and their connecting pathway leading to ASD phenotype are yet to be identified. To fetch this issue it is necessary to investigate with various intelligent approaches.