(1) Department of Medical and Pediatric Sciences, Internal Medicine Division, School of Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
(2) Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Human Anatomy and Histology Section, School of Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
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Traditional anatomy teaching consists of textbook and cadaver use. A textbook can be easily used for private study independently of the cadaver dissection; however, it can only display visual information on an anatomical structure through diagrams or photographs which are presented in two dimensions. To appreciate the tridimensional shape of organs, the study on anatomic plastic models or animal models has overcome the limitations of cadavers use.
After a brief introduction on mediastinum and thoracic cage, the practical lesson on pig heart starts with the examination of the surface and the correct orientation of the organ. Then the structures of the main vessel are evaluated, and consecutively the morphology of atria, ventricles and valves are analised.
In this methodological study we report the current and ultimate techniques to teach anatomy and explain in details our method on pig model to learn human heart anatomy.