(1) Division of Cardiology, Città della Salute e della Scienza Hospital, University of Turin, Turin, Italy
(2) Division of Infectious Disease, Amedeo di Savoia Hospital, Turin, Italy
(3) Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Latina, Italy
(4) VCU Pauley Heart Center, Richmond, VA, USA
*Corresponding author E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Nowadays in developed countries, human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects could access a highly active anti-retroviral therapy. In this setting, greater attention has been paid to the impact of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease that, actually, represents a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Higher rates of traditional risk factors along with human immunodeficiency virus infection and adverse effects of anti-retroviral agents represent important proatherogenic factors. Physicians treating human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients should consequently aim at intensively modifying risk factors, controlling drug-to-drug interactions and selecting anti-retroviral drugs with a lower cardio-metabolic impact. The aim of this study was to discuss acute coronary syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus patients.
Short-term benefits of specific anti-retrovirals prevent cardiovascular disease in human immunodeficiency virus patients, but long-term benefits need more data and longer-term follow ups to be correctly assessed.