(1) Department of Interdisciplinary Surgery and Medicine, University Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy
(2) Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
*Corresponding author Email: email@example.com
The healing of hard and soft tissues is mediated by a wide range of intra and extra-cellular events that are regulated by protein signals. It is known that platelets are involved in the process of wound healing through blood clot formation and release of growth factors that promote and maintain the wound healing.
Platelet-rich fibrin is a second generation of platelet concentrates which allows fibrin membranes to get enriched with platelets and growth factors, starting from an anticoagulant free blood harvest. Platelet-rich fibrin is similar to a fibrin network that allows cell migration and proliferation and consequently a more efficient cicatrisation.
Many growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factor are released from platelet-rich fibrin. Recent studies have demonstrated that platelet-rich fibrin has a very significant slow sustained release of key growth factors, which means that platelet-rich fibrin could stimulate the surrounding environment to a more rapid wound healing. This review aims to analyse the clinical results of platelet-rich fibrin in periodontology, oral surgery and head plastic surgery.
The platelet-rich plasmas failed to demonstrate significant benefits that justify the daily use, and the use of platelet-rich fibrin is limited to some very specific applications in which satisfactory results were achieved. Only a new simple, inexpensive and efficient technique such as the leucocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin will continue to develop in oral and maxillofacial surgery in the next years.