(1) Department of Clinical Epidemiology & Biostatistics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada
(2) Faculty of Education, Brock University, 500 Glenridge Avenue, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada
(3) Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics Hospital, Beijing 100191, China
(4) Department of Social Medicine & Health Education, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
(5) Department of Nutrition & Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is becoming a major public health problem worldwide. Evidence investigating the prevalence of and risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Beijing is scanty. The aim of this study was to discuss prevalence of and risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in community-dwellers of Beijing.
Materials and Methods
A cross-sectional study by random simple sampling in adults in a Beijing community was conducted using questionnaires (including socio-demographic characteristics, semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire, eating habits and cooking styles), anthropometric measurement, biochemical test and liver ultrasonography.
A total of 1,583 study subjects were enrolled for health check-ups and interviews between October 2010 and January 2011. The overall prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was 18.1% (17.6% for males and 12.0% for females, respectively). The results of analysing 1,215 qualified participants showed that for males, high frequency of animal oil (odds ratio = 1.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.11–2.63, for high vs. low intake) and high intake of oil were positively related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (odds ratio: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.04–3.82), while high consumption of tea was associated with a decreased risk (odds ratio: 0.57; 95% confidence interval: 0.36–0.90). For both males and females, results of relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and anthropometric and biochemical measurements showed that incremental triglyceride was related to an increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with the highest odds ratios (2.24 for males and 1.88 for females, respectively).
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adults was highly prevalent in the Beijing community. High consumption of tea was associated with a decreased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, while high frequency of animal oil, high intake of oil and triglyceride were positively related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. These findings need to be confirmed in prospective studies and randomised controlled trials designed to further clarify the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and to establish evidence-based dietary recommendations for its prevention and treatment.