School of Pharmacy, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, 250355 P. R. China
* Corresponding author Email:
† These authors contributed equally to this study.
Edible mushrooms, a valuable source of bioactive compounds and nutrients, have been consumed as part of the diet in some countries for thousands of years. They are quite high in protein, carbohydrate and fibre and low in fat content with low trans-isomers of unsaturated fatty acids. In addition, they also have many components such as triterpenes, phenolic compounds, chitosan, eritadenine, sterols (such as ergosterol), triterpenes, etc., which are considered momentous agents for some hitherto unknown healthy properties. Recently, edible mushrooms have become increasingly attractive as functional foods and medicines to treat diseases including cancer, diabetes, inflammation and ache due to the presence of these active components. Pain is an unpleasant sensation, which is a typical response to an untoward event associated with tissue damage, such as injury and inflammation. The aims of this review are to report the positive analgesic effect of several edible mushrooms on pain and its relevant active constituents.
In our review, the edible mushrooms including
Pain is a physiologically relevant sensation necessary to detect and/or prevent injury; it is sometimes useful to us[1,2]. Typically, it is a direct response to an untoward event associated with tissue damage, such as injury and inflammation, but severe pain can arise independently of any obvious redisposing cause, or precipitate healing after injury for a relatively long time. It can also occur as a consequence of brain or nerve injury. Pain signalling to the central nervous system is initiated when harmful excitement and primary afferent nociceptive C and A fibres are frequently caused by activation of several types of ionotropic channels and etabotropic receptors[3,4]. In fact, transient receptor potential and acid-sensing ion channels participate in generating nociceptive signals in response to various specific noxious stimuli[4,5,6]. Activity of some of these channels and other proteins implicated in nociceptive signalling pathways can be upregulated by protein kinase C[7,8,9]. Thus, pain is generated.
Edible mushrooms are the fleshy and edible fruiting bodies of several species of fungi, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. They have been used as delicious foods and as healthy nutritional supplements for several centuries. For the Chinese, some mushrooms are especially regarded as medical substances that boost health and increase longevity, which is attributed to their far-ranging functions, for example antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, immunity, anti-tumour, ascorbic and so on. Mushrooms are quite high in protein (19–35%) and low in fat. Miles et al. concluded that mushrooms also contain relatively large amounts of carbohydrate and fibre, ranging from 51% to 88% and from 4% to 20%, respectively (dry weight). In addition, mushrooms contain significant amounts of vitamins, namely thiamin, ascorbic acid, riboflavin and vitamin D2, as well as minerals[11,12]. In addition to their nutritional value, some mushrooms may also have a medicinal value: anti-tumour, antiviral and hypolipidemic effects have been reported[11,12,13]. They form a huge, but largely untapped powerful source of new pharmaceutical products[14,15]. They are low-calorie foods with very little fat and are highly suitable for obese persons. Their consumption is widespread in China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Italy and Spain, among other countries[17,18,19].
In this review, we intend to discuss the result of research on the antinociception effect of edible mushrooms over the past two decades, emphasising animal studies as well as supporting mechanistic studies. We selected several typical edible fungi which result in pain relief. Our goals are to evaluate the analgesic effect of edible fungus, identify some putative bioactive compounds involved in the effect and stimulate further work in the field.
The authors have referenced some of their own studies in this review. The protocols of these studies have been approved by the relevant ethics committees related to the institution in which they were performed. Animal care was in accordance with the institution guidelines.
Pleurotus is a genus of gilled mushrooms, one of the most widely eaten mushrooms. Species of
Chemical structure of β-glucan isolated from
In order to evaluate the involvement of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and protein kinase C (PKC) on antinociceptive effect of a (1 → 3), (1 → 6)-linked β-D-glucan (GL), Baggio et al. isolated GL from
Pleurotus florida, an American oyster mushroom, has been reported to possess antioxidant, immunostimulator, anti-tumour and anti-inflammatory activities[32,33]. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of
Pleurotus mushrooms are the second most important mushrooms in terms of production in the world. Furthermore, this species has been of interest to researchers because its phytochemical constituents are similar to those of
Similarly, the antinociceptive potential of
In summary, oyster mushrooms have shown potent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties in several animal model studies and no side effects. However, further studies are needed to investigate the antinociceptive mechanisms in vivo, and human intervention studies of oyster mushrooms alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapy are also demanded to establish efficacy in humans.
Agaricus is the most common eubacterium among the whole macrofungi. The species number admitted by taxonomists is more than 200. It is a large family, which is named
Structure of the fucogalactans EPF-Ab and EPF-Ah, obtained respectively from
Chemical structures of metabolites isolated from
Coriolus versicolor, also referred to as the turkey-tail mushroom, contains large quantities of β-glucans that act to stimulate the immune system.
The PSP from the mushroom
On the whole,
Among the whole macrofungi family,
Not only the four genuses described above but also many others have the effect of analgesia. Lu et al. concluded that the dry matter of culture broth (DMCB) of
Edible mushrooms have been widely used in some cultures as traditional medicines to treat diseases including diabetes and cancer, and to stimulate the immune system. Pain is intuitive for feelings of these diseases such as cancer, inflammation and injuries. As a result, the analgesic effects of edible fungi have a wide range of applications. The active components in many mushrooms with analgesic effects are very clear. In our review, edible mushrooms including
Bioactive components/extracts from edible mushrooms with analgesic effect
CPE, crude polysaccharide extract; CS,
This work was supported by the Foundation of Ji'nan Science and Technology Development Program (201302055).
All authors contributed to conception and design, manuscript preparation, read and approved the final manuscript.
All authors abide by the Association for Medical Ethics (AME) ethical rules of disclosure.
Bioactive components/extracts from edible mushrooms with analgesic effect
|Edible mushrooms||Bioactive components/extracts of analgesic effect||References|
|Methanol and aqueous extracts|||
|Crude saponin extract Crude polysaccharide extract|||