Gratis And Libre Open Access
The phrases gratis and libre can be used to categorize intellectual assets in the free software and open source communities, as well as the larger free culture campaign, especially computer programs, as per the licenses and legal constraints that apply to them. They are used to differentiate freeware (software gratis) versus free software, for example (software libre).
"With little or no limitation" (gratis) and "with no monetary expense" (gratis) are two popular meanings of the English word free (libre). When it comes to rules governing the use of information, such as copyright and patents, the confusion of the term "free" can pose problems where the differentiation is critical.
Gratis open access refers to information that is freely available, however it may be subject to copyright and license constraints. "Gratis" is derived from the plural ablative and dative version of the first-declension word grtia in Latin, which is derived from the plural ablative and dative form of the first-declension noun grtia in Latin. It signifies "free" in the sense that certain items or services are provided without charge, even if they are valuable.
Libre open access is information or data that is both free and unrestricted by copyright and license restrictions. The phrase "libre" comes from the Latin word "libre", which means "free." "The state of being free," as in "liberty" or "having freedom," is what it means.
In 2006, Peter Suber and Stevan Harnad, two of the co-drafters of the original Budapest Open Access Initiative definition of open access publishing, introduced the differentiation between gratis open access and libre open access to reflect real-world variances in the degree of openness. Gratis open access refers to unrestricted online access (as shown by the symbol Free to read on Wikipedia), whereas libre open access refers to unrestricted online access with certain extra re-use rights. The Budapest Open Access Initiative, the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing, and the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities all define libre open access as the same thing. The re-use rights of free OA are frequently regulated under various Creative Commons licenses; virtually all of these licenses demand authorship credit to the original writers.
The original gratis/libre dichotomy refers to software that allows users to do one of two things: access and use it, or alter and re-use it. "Gratis" refers to the ability to access and use the code without charge, whereas "libre" refers to the ability to alter and re-use the code without restriction. The open access movement's target material, however, is published, peer-reviewed academic journal article contents, not software.
The case for making the text of published research articles freely accessible online (Gratis) is even stronger than it is for software code, because in the case of software, some developers may wish to give their code away for free while others may wish to sell it, whereas in the case of published research article texts, all of their authors, without exception, give them away for free: none seek or receive royalties or fees from their sale. Any lack of access to potential users, on the other hand, indicates a loss of potential research impact for the author's study, because the job, income, promotion, and financing of researcher-authors are all dependent in part on the uptake and effect of their research.
Since, unlike software code, the content of a research paper is not designed for change and re-use, the argument for permitting text modification and re-use is significantly weaker for published research articles. Once an author's ideas and results have been published, there are no copyright limitations to changing, developing, expanding upon, and re-using them as long as the author and published source are credited—but changes to the published text are a different story. Aside from direct quoting, scholarly/scientific writers are often opposed to certain other authors creating "mashups" of their works. The majority of scientist are glad to make their texts available for collecting and indexing for search and data mining purposes, but not for re-use in changed form (without the permission of the author).