History Of Open Access Publication
Open access is a movement that promotes the open distribution of peer-reviewed research results online by eliminating legal, financial, and societal obstacles to access. The current open access movement traces its origins as far back as the 1950s when the Letterist International (LI) published a newspaper called Potlatch that made everything available to the public.
Guy Debord wrote to Patrick Straram when the LI and the Situationist International joined to become the Situationist International. "As a general rule, any material produced by the Situationist International is freely available for use by anyone, even without acknowledgement, and is not subject to the restrictions of literary property." This was done to make détournement easier.
The introduction of the Digital Age in the 1990s gained a great deal of popularity. The proliferation of the Internet and the capacity to reproduce and share electronic material at no cost have given new significance to the arguments favouring open access. The fixed cost of generating the content may be separated from the least marginal cost of distributing it online, which is a separate cost.
Near the end of the twentieth century, university librarians all around the globe were confronted with a serious dilemma that has come to be known as the "serials issue." Increasing subscription rates for publications prompted libraries (including Harvard!) to make tough decisions between journals since they could no longer sustain their subscriptions to all of the journals they desired. At this period, the internet was barely beginning to gain popularity.
Anybody with a computer and an internet connection can now develop and disseminate materials to a worldwide audience for pennies on the dollar, thanks to the Internet. Some organizations saw the light as a result of the Free Software Movement's revelation of the internet's full potential for freely sharing information, and they acted accordingly. The arXiv.org website, for example, encouraged scientists to self-archive their work before it was published in an online repository, and this practice continues today.
Since the 1990s, there has been an upsurge of interest in and participation in open access journals, which may be attributed in large part to the broad availability of Internet access. With the advent of the Internet, it is now feasible to publish an academic paper and make it instantaneously available to anybody, anywhere in the world who has access to a computer and an Internet connection. The fixed cost of generating the content may be separated from the least marginal cost of distributing it online, which is a separate cost.
At the end of the 20th century, the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR) became one of the first free online distribution periodicals to go live. Publication of PubMed Central and BioMed Central by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 2000 marked the beginning of the era of open access repositories. Currently, PubMed Central and BioMed Central have more than 6 million articles combined. The movement was given fresh life thanks to the assistance of the government.
In 2002 and 2003, a group of academics came together to draft two open access initiatives: the Budapest Open Access Initiative, which gave a formal definition of open access and served as a summons to action, and the Berlin Declaration on Open Access, which served as a call to action as well. In addition, the Public Library of Science was established in 2003, and it currently publishes some of the most competitive open access journals available on the market today, according to its website. Academics, universities, financial institutions, businesses, and even government offices and agencies have all expressed their support for this project, which has received widespread attention.
Beginning with the January 2005 grant cycle, the Wellcome Trust required that award recipients provide a copy of their published work to PubMed Central. As part of the current struggle for open access, one of the most essential components is the pressure placed on publishers to embrace open access rules. The alternative option is to encourage academics to self-archive their work in institutional depositories, which is considered the environmentally friendly option.
There was a big international declaration on open access made by the Open Society Institute in February 2002, the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI). A important worldwide declaration on open access was made in this document. A statement on open access publishing was issued by Bethesda University in June 2003, while a proclamation on open access to knowledge was issued by Berlin University of Science and Humanities in October that year.
In addition, the Declaration of Principles and Action Plan of the 2003 World Summit on the Information Society contains open access. Following publication of PLOS Biology in 2003, PLOS Medicine in 2004, and PLOS One in 2006, the company's first open-access journal, PLOS One, followed in 2006. In the United States Congress, John Cornyn and Joe Lieberman proposed the Federal Research Public Access Act of 2006, which was enacted unanimously.   There have been annual attempts since then, but it has never progressed beyond the committee level.