The Third Stage Of The Liberation Struggle - A Brief History
The third stage of the liberation struggle come in many forms, they always seek to achieve one common goal: the creation of a sovereign nation-state inside internationally recognized boundaries.
These movements need their people to come together around the common objective of national liberation rather than pursuing any of the many other conceivable social goals. In fact, national liberation movements were some of the most powerful political forces in Europe in the 1800s. By the 1900s, they had also spread to Asia and Africa.
Even if there are connections to debates over religion and national identity, economic concerns have always been the driving force behind national liberation movements.
African nationalist organizations immediately learned that the South African, Rhodesian, and Portuguese regimes were strongly against democratic and peaceful change. South Africa, Rhodesia, Angola, Namibia, and Mozambique all required absolute emancipation.
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Liberation movements in southern African struggles before the 1960s, maybe the mid-1960s, are anachronisms. Liberation movements differ from nationalist groups. The liberation fight seeks absolute freedom.
Most independent African nations did not reform their economies, societies, or governments. The United Republic of Tanzania became a revolutionary party following independence.
By the 1960s, colonial authorities in Angola, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Namibia, and South Africa understood they were dealing with liberation movements, not nationalist groups.
Economic dependency on old colonial overlords prevents African governments from pursuing an autonomous foreign policy. Southern African liberation movements were revolutionary, not nationalist.
They are emancipatory and anti-imperialist. They want to end colonial political, economic, and social structures. The "liberation army" or "revolutionary army" was formed by each liberation movement. Cadres should be moral and revolutionary newcomers. They establish parties' ideological norms and radicalize.
ZANU, ZAPU, SWAPO, ANC, and PAC want to end white settler colonialism in Zimbabwe, Namibia, and South Africa. They want the people's democracy instead of obsolete political structures. The 1970s liberation movements turned southern Africa into a battlefield.
Mozambique, Angola, and Namibia increasingly relied on communist nations for material support. Capitalist backers of white-minority governments in Zimbabwe, Namibia, and South Africa realized two things by 1977: First, no military force could stop them from supporting freedom.
Fate and the trajectory of national liberation movements
Despite ties to debates over religion and national identity, economic factors have always dominated national liberation movements. This is because of the interconnectedness of the world's economies and the rise of global capitalism.
Rhodesia's civil war, known by several names such as the Second Chimurenga and the Zimbabwe War of Liberation, lasted from July 1964 until December 1979. (later Zimbabwe-Rhodesia). Situation on the international stage after Angola and Mozambique gained their independence in 1975.
The Irish nationalists in Northern Ireland, the Tamils in Sri Lanka, the Tibetans in China, the Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza, the Kurds in Iraq and Turkey, the Kashmiris in India, the Muslims in southern Thailand, the Chechens in Russia, and the Quebecois in Canada are just a few of the people who have fought for their independence in the first decade of the twenty-first century.
The troika pretends to be impartial in the face of the most heinous atrocities committed on a daily basis by the most recalcitrant of retrograde governments. One professes to be a socialist benefactor, while the other vows to protect African nations' borders. The third stage of the liberation struggle in the name of anti-revisionism, supports and mitigates while professing to stand with the first against the second.