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Intra Aortic Balloon Pump – The Best Treatment For Heart Patients

Intra aortic balloon pump is a therapeutic device. It assists your heart in pumping more blood. If your heart cannot pump enough blood to your body, you may need it.

The intra aortic balloon pump comprises a thin, flexible tube known as a catheter. A lengthy balloon is attached to the catheter's tip. This is referred to as an intra-aortic balloon. The catheter's other end connects to a computer console. This console features a mechanism that inflates and deflates the balloon as your heart beats.

Your heart circulates oxygenated blood and nutrients throughout your body. The blood vessels that deliver oxygenated blood exit the heart through the arteries. Atherosclerosis may be seen in the heart's outer walls. These are known as coronary arteries. The heart obtains oxygen and nourishment via these arteries.

When the heart contracts, blood is pumped into the body. Blood pours into the coronary arteries as it relaxes, bringing oxygen to the heart. An intra aortic balloon pump improves blood flow into your coronary arteries. Each contraction also helps your heart pump more blood.

What Is Intra Aortic Balloon Pump?

An intra-aortic balloon pump, or IABP, is a long, slender balloon regulating blood flow via the aorta, your main blood artery. When your heart beats, the device shrinks, allowing blood to circulate to the rest of your body. When your heart relaxes, it expands to keep more blood in your heart.

If your heart isn't receiving enough blood or isn't sending enough to the rest of your body, your doctor may consider an intra-aortic balloon pump. This is known as cardiogenic shock. It may occur after a heart attack, when your heart is weak, or as a result of another cardiac condition such as:

  • Arrhythmia is a condition in which your heart does not beat in a regular rhythm.
  • Myocarditis is caused by an infection that inflames the heart muscle.

An intra-aortic balloon pump may also be used to aid recovery after surgery to reopen or bypass a blocked artery near your heart.

It is only present briefly, usually for a few days, while you are in the hospital.

Intra Aortic Balloon Pump Therapy

During intra aortic balloon pump therapy, the balloon is threaded through your aorta. The aorta is a big artery that exits your heart. This surgery is often performed via a tiny incision on the inner of your upper thigh. Your healthcare professional will insert the balloon pump catheter into an artery in your leg. Then they will direct it to your aorta.

From there, the intra-aortic balloon pump may begin its job. When the heart relaxes, the balloon inflates. It causes blood flow to return to the coronary arteries. Without the pump, they may not have received enough blood. The balloon deflates as the heart contracts. As a result, the heart can pump more blood to the body while using less energy. Until the gadget is removed, it will continue to inflate and deflate.

An intra-aortic balloon pump is a temporary therapy. You may need it until your heart problem improves or until a more permanent treatment is available. Its popularity is constantly increasing. However, it is not currently accessible in all medical facilities.

Human heart model
Human heart model

Indications For Using Intra Aortic Balloon Pump

This gadget may be helpful in the following scenarios.

  • Cardiogenic shock as the sole therapy for myocardial infarction. Only 9-22 percent make it through the first year.
  • Acute mitral regurgitation and septal perforation are reversible intracardial mechanical abnormalities that complicate infarction.
  • Counterpulsation may help with unstable angina pectoris.
  • Counterpulsation is the most frequent and effective method of weaning patients off cardiopulmonary bypass following ongoing perioperative damage to cardiac tissue.
  • Preoperative usage is recommended for high-risk patients, such as those with unstable angina and stenosis of more than 70% of the major coronary artery and those with ventricular dysfunction and an ejection fraction less than 35%.
  • Coronary angioplasty using percutaneous means
  • Cardiopulmonary bypass time was reduced during high-risk coronary artery bypass graft surgery, intubation, and hospital stay.
  • Acute myocardial infarction thrombolytic treatment

Risks With Intra Aortic Balloon Pump

Intra aortic balloon pump therapy may be beneficial and even life-saving in rare cases. However, there are specific hazards. These are some examples:

  • Damage caused by a limb's lack of blood flow (ischemia)
  • An artery injury
  • The balloon bursts
  • Incorrect balloon positioning may result in renal damage or other complications.
  • A low platelet count may result in excessive bleeding since your blood may not clot as effectively.
  • Infection
  • Stroke

Your specific risks are determined by your age and any other medical issues you may have. For example, a loss of blood flow to your leg may be more prevalent if you have peripheral vascular disease.

People Also Ask

What Is The Primary Goal Of Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Therapy?

The fundamental objective of intra-aortic balloon pump therapy is to enhance myocardial oxygen supply while decreasing myocardial oxygen demand. Because of juxta-renal balloon placement, reduced urine production may occur following intra-aortic balloon pump installation.

How Long Can An Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Stay In?

The catheter links to a computer that regulates the rate of inflation and deflation. Although most patients only take the intra-aortic balloon pump for a few days, it may last up to a month.

Where Is Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Inserted?

The balloon is threaded through your aorta. The aorta is a big artery that exits your heart. This surgery is often performed via a tiny incision on the inner of your upper thigh. Your healthcare professional will insert the balloon pump catheter into an artery in your leg.

How Do Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumps Work?

The intra-aortic balloon pump is inserted into your aorta, the artery that transports blood from your heart to the rest of your body. The balloon at the catheter's tip inflates and deflates in time with your heartbeat. This assists your heart in pumping blood throughout your body.

Conclusion

Your doctor is the best person to advise you on what to anticipate during intra aortic balloon pump treatment. Follow these steps carefully to improve your chances of success.

About The Authors

Suleman Shah

Suleman Shah - Suleman Shah is a researcher and freelance writer. As a researcher, he has worked with MNS University of Agriculture, Multan (Pakistan) and Texas A & M University (USA). He regularly writes science articles and blogs for science news website immersse.com and open access publishers OA Publishing London and Scientific Times. He loves to keep himself updated on scientific developments and convert these developments into everyday language to update the readers about the developments in the scientific era. His primary research focus is Plant sciences, and he contributed to this field by publishing his research in scientific journals and presenting his work at many Conferences. Shah graduated from the University of Agriculture Faisalabad (Pakistan) and started his professional carrier with Jaffer Agro Services and later with the Agriculture Department of the Government of Pakistan. His research interest compelled and attracted him to proceed with his carrier in Plant sciences research. So, he started his Ph.D. in Soil Science at MNS University of Agriculture Multan (Pakistan). Later, he started working as a visiting scholar with Texas A&M University (USA). Shah’s experience with big Open Excess publishers like Springers, Frontiers, MDPI, etc., testified to his belief in Open Access as a barrier-removing mechanism between researchers and the readers of their research. Shah believes that Open Access is revolutionizing the publication process and benefitting research in all fields.

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