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Northern Hemisphere Temperature - How Sun Influenced Its Trends

It is critical to assess total solar irradiance since it influences Northern Hemisphere temperature trends.

1983–2012 was the hottest 30-year period in the Northern Hemisphere in 1400 years.

Most of the rise in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is likely attributable to 'anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations.'

Recent reviews and publications have found that solar variability may explain most of global warming since the mid-20th century.

Many reviews and articles reached the opposite conclusion.

In the Sun/climate dispute, the IPCC prematurely reached "consensus" by suppressing alternative scientific perspectives.

IPCC reports typically lack a correct understanding of scientific disagreements (and why).

This article's co-authors have differing Sun/climate opinions.

It's time to alert the scientific community to unsolved issues.

This review emphasizes conflicting perspectives and scientific consensus.

The IPCC (2013) reports analyzed just a subset of total solar irradiance estimations.

Other research suggests Sun/climate correlations are subtler.

Changing Total Solar Irradiance Estimation

Sunspots have been noticed since the invention of the first telescopes, and Galileo Galilei reported sunspots as early as 1610.

Sunspot data demonstrate considerable variations from sub-decadal to multi-decadal timeframes.

The argument over whether satellite composite is the most accurate has consequences for measuring Transient Solar Temperature changes before satellites.

Many Transient Solar Temperature (TSI) reconstructions depend mainly on sunspot data.

The proportional contribution to Transient Solar Temperature is thought to be reversed for younger and more energetic stars (i.e., the changes in stellar irradiance are spot-dominated).

It is unknown how much of the Transient Solar Temperature fluctuation is represented by sunspot counts.

Although satellite data demonstrate that sunspots lower solar illumination, the average Transient Solar Temperature rises during sunspot maxima.

The argument over whether satellite composite is the most accurate has consequences for measuring Transient Solar Temperature changes before satellites.

Skeptics of climate change may exploit a putative solar influence to justify inaction on anthropogenic warming.

If PMOD or similar satellite composites are correct, the sunspot cycle is the primary source of Transient Solar Temperature fluctuation.

Even a 10% shift in the quiet-Sun field strength between solar cycles might result in a Transient Solar Temperature fluctuation equivalent to that seen throughout a solar cycle.

Surface Temperature Changes In The Northern Hemisphere

There are numerous methods for estimating Northern Hemisphere surface temperature changes since the nineteenth century (or earlier).

Some argue that urbanization bias is a minor contributor to global and hemispheric temperature trends.

Others argue that after statistical homogenization techniques (usually automated) are applied to the data, the majority of non-climatic biases are eliminated or significantly reduced.

The majority of the records have significant data gaps, frequently accompanied by "jumps" in the average annual temperature, implying a station move or some other non-climatic bias.

Some are urban or semi-urban is Northern Hemispherbut have been explicitly adjusted to account for urbanization bias.

The four regions alone account for more than 80% of the rural data from either hemisphere for the early twentieth century.

Anthropogenic Forcings

According to the IPCC AR5, "anthropogenic forcings" have been the dominant driver of global (and hemispheric) temperature trends since the mid-20th century.

Sixteen different TSI estimates were identified and five different sets of Northern Hemisphere temperature trends, giving a total of 80 combinations to consider.

"Total anthropogenic forcings" for each year are the annual sum of all individual anthropogenic forcings in the RCP dataset from 1765 to 2005.

Both time series are broadly similar, but the "total anthropogenic forcing" time series deviates slightly from the CO2-only time series for parts of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Snowy mountains in cloudy sky while are emerging behind the mountains
Snowy mountains in cloudy sky while are emerging behind the mountains

People Also Ask

How Is Climate Change Affecting The Northern Hemisphere?

The average summer temperature in the Northern Hemisphere rises by 3° to 8° C, with hotspots (the Mediterranean area, Central North America, sections of Greenland, Siberia, and Central Asia) anticipated rising by 7° to 8° C by the end of the century.

Why Does Temperature Vary More In The Northern Hemisphere?

There is a significant fluctuation in the monthly mean temperature in the Northern Hemisphere.

The land can absorb and release heat at a far quicker rate than the sea.

Overland, the heat is dispersed over a skinny layer, but the energy is mixed by conduction, convection, and currents over a relatively thick layer across the water.

Is The Northern Hemisphere Getting Warmer?

According to the global climate summary for March 2021 compiled by the National Centers for Environmental Information of the NOAA, the first month of spring in the Northern Hemisphere in 2021 was warmer than the average temperature for the whole planet.


Despite the assurance with which many studies claim to have addressed this topic, how much the Sun has affected the changes in the Northern Hemisphere temperature has not yet been answered to a level of satisfaction considered acceptable.

Recent attempts to force an apparent scientific consensus (including the IPCC reports) on these scientific debates are premature and, in the end, unhelpful for the advancement of scientific knowledge.

Many valid dissenting scientific opinions continue to exist on these issues.

About The Authors

Suleman Shah

Suleman Shah - Suleman Shah is a researcher and freelance writer. As a researcher, he has worked with MNS University of Agriculture, Multan (Pakistan) and Texas A & M University (USA). He regularly writes science articles and blogs for science news website immersse.com and open access publishers OA Publishing London and Scientific Times. He loves to keep himself updated on scientific developments and convert these developments into everyday language to update the readers about the developments in the scientific era. His primary research focus is Plant sciences, and he contributed to this field by publishing his research in scientific journals and presenting his work at many Conferences. Shah graduated from the University of Agriculture Faisalabad (Pakistan) and started his professional carrier with Jaffer Agro Services and later with the Agriculture Department of the Government of Pakistan. His research interest compelled and attracted him to proceed with his carrier in Plant sciences research. So, he started his Ph.D. in Soil Science at MNS University of Agriculture Multan (Pakistan). Later, he started working as a visiting scholar with Texas A&M University (USA). Shah’s experience with big Open Excess publishers like Springers, Frontiers, MDPI, etc., testified to his belief in Open Access as a barrier-removing mechanism between researchers and the readers of their research. Shah believes that Open Access is revolutionizing the publication process and benefitting research in all fields.

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