OA Dentistry http://www.oapublishinglondon.com/oa-dentistry OA Dentistry Biomarkers of periodontal tissue in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic movements: An overview. http://www.oapublishinglondon.com/article/1159 Introduction Only in recent timeshas been enhancedthe importance ofgingival crevicular fluidinperiodontal healthand in particularin maintaining the integrityof periodontiumduring applicationoforthodontic forces. The aim of this short review is to evaluate the importance of substances as valid biomarkers of periodontal health during orthodontic movements. Materials and methods A search on PubMed and Cochrane database was performed considering the literature from 2003 to 2014, using the following key words: gengival crevicular fluid, biomarkers of periodontal tissue, orthodontic movements. After abstracts screening, the full-texts of selected papers were analyzed and the papers found from the reference lists were also considered. Results The search focused on clinical applications documented in studies in the English language: levels of evidence included in the literature analysis were I, II and III. Literature analysis showed 28 papers that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Conclusion The conclusion is that GCF is a powerful vehicle for clinical diagnostics, since it contains different biochemical and cellular arrays in relation to different clinical situations indicative of the state of periodontal health during orthodontic treatment. 10/24/2020 02:34:39 pm Periodontal aspects in orthodontics. http://www.oapublishinglondon.com/article/612 Introduction. Orthodontic treatment (OT) requests are growing up in the last few years, due to the esthetical needs of the population. Adult orthodontics is increasing in popularity as it is becoming more feasible to move and improve the alignment of a patients teeth, irrespective of the technique. Although comprehensive OT cannot preclude the possibility of periodontal disease developing later, periodontal diagnosis and treatment can be a useful part of the overall treatment plan for a patient who could have periodontal involvement. The patient's ability to achieve and maintain good overall oral hygiene and prevent periodontal disease is fundamental during OT period also. Aim. The aim of our study was to demonstrate the presence of red complex bacteria in orthodontic patients, and the usefulnees of e new diagnostic test to control periodontal desease during OT. Materials and Methods. A total of 146 individuals participated to the study, 72 were adults orthodontic patients (16-45 years old, mean age 27.3), while 74 constituted the control group homogeneus for age and sex. A single species of each patient is quantitatively analized with the Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR-RT) using the LABtest (LAB® s.r.l, Ferrara, Italia. www.labsrl.com). Statistical analysis: The Freeman-Halton extension of Fisher's exact test was used. Results. Prevalence of each red complex specie is different among groups of patients with or without orthodontics appliances, with high degree of statistical significance, P. gingivalis P value = 5x10-6, T. forsythia P value = 8x10-5, and T. denticola P value = 3x10-3. Discussion.Three bacterial species that constitute the red complex group, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, are considered the main pathogens involved in periodontitis related to orthodontic therapy. 10/24/2020 02:34:39 pm The role of payments systems in influencing oral health care provision. http://www.oapublishinglondon.com/article/613 The unique characteristics of dental disease, such as its predictability, non-communicability, ease of diagnosis, and its extensive prevention possibilities, should result in greater cost control and an expectation of a better operation of the market mechanism than in general health care.  These differentiating features, however, also increase the likelihood that services are over-consumed and/or over-provided. The most influential feature determining efficient resource use in health care provision is the type of payment system.  A per capita system severs the link between the dentist’s future income and service provision and provides equity in terms of coverage and access. The result is that patients may benefit from fewer unnecessary treatments, and encounter more preventive activities. The system is limited by the potential for under treatment and problems with patient selection. With fixed salary the dentist’s income is independent of service provision, with incentives for low production, which leads to high costs per patient.  Salaried dentists generally provide more prevention services, and allow the targeting of services to priority or “special needs” groups. The patient benefits from the greater equity of a service and the location of services can be determined by community needs. Fee-per item is the most common payment system in dental service provision for adults, where the dentist is rewarded according to the amount of work undertaken.   Fee-per item removes the incentive for supervised neglect or to cherry pick patients. It also solves the problems of patient selection and under-treatment, associated with capitation financing.  Fee-per-item can encourage the use of services by patients on the advice of the dentist with the result that costs can be inflated with little impact on oral health itself. In the absence of a system of probity dentists can manipulate demand and set fees, and provider moral hazard can occur in the form of supplier inducement.  The optimal dental contract may be a ‘blended’ payment system whereby dentists receive a proportion of their income through capitation, a proportion from allowances and proportion from fee-per-item of service. 10/24/2020 02:34:39 pm Impact of orthodontic treatment on oral health-related quality of life: a critical review. http://www.oapublishinglondon.com/article/945 Introduction The purpose of this paper is to discuss critically the impact of orthodontic treatment with a fixed appliance on individuals' oral health-related quality of life. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies were evaluated by a critical review of English-language articles retrieved from PubMed electronic database. The selected articles were identified from titles, abstracts and full-text articles by two independent reviewers, considering the tabulated inclusion and exclusion criteria. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Concluion A total of 17 full text articles were included in the present critical review, which showed that the results from a successful orthodontic treatment improve individuals' emotional well-being and their quality of life. However, this improvement is observed on short-term evaluations. There is no evidence that orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance has long-term effects on oral health related quality of life. 10/24/2020 02:34:39 pm Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy for prevention and treatment of dental caries: a critical review. http://www.oapublishinglondon.com/article/946 Photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (PACT) studies regarding dental caries have been present more frequently in the literature. However, PACT depends on the adjustment of variables such as the type of light source, photosensitizers target microorganism; this makes it difficult to draw meaningful comparisons. Objective: The purpose of this study was to provide a critical review related to this coadjuvant approach in the prevention and treatment of dental caries. Material and Methods: A database search was made via Medline/PubMed (keywords: photodynamic therapy and dental caries) and 33 articles were found. Results: Twelve articles were included after using the filter tool, being excluded reviews and manuscripts reporting works not related to the studied area. Conclusions: The manuscripts showed that photodynamic therapy presents optimal results against dental caries, even though better understanding of PACT and its components are necessary before the clinical application of this alternative modality in the dental practice. 10/24/2020 02:34:39 pm Florid cemento osseous dysplasia: 15-years clinical and radiographic follow-up. http://www.oapublishinglondon.com/article/1001 Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia is one of the terms that have been designated by the World Health Organization as cemento-osseous dysplasias of the jaws. The word 'florid' was introduced to describe the wide spread, extensive manifestations of the disease in the jaws. The condition is usually asymptomatic, however, in some cases symptoms of dull pain or signs of infection may be noted in the involved area. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) has been described as a condition that typically affects middle-aged black women, and usually manifests as multiple radiopaque cementum-like masses distributed throughout the jaws. A case of asymptomatic uncomplicated florid cemento-osseous dysplasia occurring in a 59-year-old Jordanian female is reported, which can be considered rare regarding race distribution. The long-term follow-up (15 years) shows the different stages of maturation of the lesions and confirms that the condition is self-limited. The diagnosis was based on clinical and radiographic features only. 10/24/2020 02:34:39 pm Anaesthetic approach to a patient with Rett syndrome during tooth extraction. http://www.oapublishinglondon.com/article/1002 Rett Syndrome is a progressive developmental syndrome which occurs at the rate of 10000-23000 throughout the world and courses with autism, dementia, ataxia and loss of manual dexterity in girls. While children with Rett syndrome show a normal or near normal development until 6-18th months of their lives, they forget the skills they obtained with a rapid regression and then enter a long period of non-development.In this case report, a 26 year old female patient undergoing operation for tooth extraction is presented. 10/24/2020 02:34:39 pm Do economic incentives influence the provision of dental services in a third-party funded dental scheme? http://www.oapublishinglondon.com/article/1111 Objectives:To investigate whether the provision of dental services is influenced by economic incentives in a third-party funded dental service in the Republic of Ireland. Methods:Four treatment items were identified as outcome variables. These items were characterised by variation in regulation among administrative regions or variation in regulation over time. The items were Extra Oral Radiographs, Endodontics, Prolonged Periodontal Treatment, and Surgical Extractions. Claims data were obtained from the Primary Care Reimbursement Service (PCRS), formerly known as the General Medical Services Payments Board (GMSPB).  Population data were obtained from the Central Statistics Office. Data were obtained from the Principal Dental Surgeons in Ireland who apply local regulatory or price controls for certain items of treatment. The data were analysed to determine the impact of the variation in regulatory approach on claims data among the eight regional health administrative areas whilst controlling for known clinical or population structural factors. Results   There was a substantially lower than average provision of Extra-Oral Radiographs in regions where regulation was stringently applied.The provision of Prolonged Periodontal Treatment was positively correlated with price. The dentist-to-population ratio is positively correlated with claims for Surgical Extractions. ConclusionsThere is evidence from within the funding system that economic incentives, arising from either the contract itself or due to the geographical structure of the dentist workforce in Ireland, leads to variations in certain items of service provision which are potentially inefficient and independent of known treatment need. 10/24/2020 02:34:39 pm Osteoporosis and periodontitis. http://www.oapublishinglondon.com/article/1185 Osteoporosis and periodontitis are the  diseases that  affect  a large  number of men and women worldwide with incidence  increasing  with  advancing  age.  Both  these  diseases  present  bone  loss  as  a  common  hallmark. Periodontitis has  long  been  defined  as  an  infection  mediated destruction  of  the  alveolar  bone  and  soft  tissue attachment to  the  tooth,  responsible  for  most tooth  loss  in  adult populations. Systemic loss of bone density in osteoporosis including that of the oral cavity may provide a host system that is increasingly susceptible to infectious destruction of periodontal tissue. Understanding the association between these  common  diseases  and  the  mechanisms  underlying  these  associations  will  aid  health  professionals  to  provide  improved  means  to  prevent,  diagnose  and  treat  these  very  common  diseases.  The  paper  reviews  the  current  evidence  on  the  association  between  periodontal  disease  and  osteoporosis. 10/24/2020 02:34:39 pm Corticotomy assisted orthodontics: A review of surgical technique and literature. http://www.oapublishinglondon.com/article/1186 Introduction: Corticotomy assisted orthodontic treatment is a promising procedure, the development of which has offered solutions to many orthodontic limitations. This technique has been shown to decrease orthodontic treatment times by a third in some cases. The technique involves selective alveolar decortication in the form of cortical cuts or perforations performed around teeth to be moved. Methods: Electronic search of the literature directly relating to surgically assisted tooth movement with corticotomy. The searches were carried out up to the first week in December 2013. Conclusion: Review of literature has shown the potential of corticotomy techniques in improving orthodontic outcomes. The quality of evidence available at present however is low and is mainly centred on case reports 10/24/2020 02:34:39 pm Prevalence and related parameters of halitosis in general population and periodontal patients. http://www.oapublishinglondon.com/article/1187 Aim:The present review aimed to focus on the studies of halitosis prevalence and related parameters in general population and periodontal patients because the amount of epidemiological researches about halitosis is limited. Materials & Methods: In this review, PubMed-MEDLINE and Lilacs/SciELO were searched through February 2014 to identify appropriate studies. “Volatile sulphur compounds”, “halitosis”, “periodontitis+halitosis”and “prevalence+halitosis” were selected as outcome variables. Results: The review showed different numbers about prevalence of halitosis, between 2 to 87% in general population. About the halitosis related parameters, periodontal disease, older age, men, tongue coating were the parameters with more association with high levels of halitosis.Conclusion:So, one standard protocol should be created to be easy the comparison of the studies and to show the real prevalence of halitosis around the world because there is absence of uniformity in evaluation methods and diagnosis in the prevalence and related parameters studies of halitosis. 10/24/2020 02:34:39 pm Guided bone regeneration is a reliable technique in implant dentistry: An overview and a case report. http://www.oapublishinglondon.com/article/1195 The use of dental implants has become a widespread and predictable treatment modality for the restoration of missing teeth and various edentulous cases. It is clear that the use of regenerative technique with dental implant placement is an important step which assists the process of bone regeneration.As the clinical success of implant therapy is based on osseointegration, defined as the direct anchorage of the implant in the bone tissue without the interposition of fibrous tissue, considerable research has been conducted to promotebone growth.The basic principle of Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR)  involves the placement of mechanical barriers to protect blood clots and to isolate the bone defect from the surrounding connective tissue, thus providing bone-forming cells with access to a secluded space intended for bone regeneration. The use of GBR to treat bony defects around dental implants has been extensively documented throughout the past decades and among all the available non resorbable barrier membranes used for GBR procedures, membranes made of e-PTFE have become the membrane of choice in many clinical situations. Data reported in the literature seem to demonstrate that GBR procedures are a reliable means for augmenting bone in cases of vertical and/or horizontal defects in partially edentulous patients. These data suggest that GBR should be considered a reliable technique for obtaining bone formation and placing dental implants in cases in which it would otherwise not be possible. This paper reports an overview and  a clinical case about the use of GBR in implant surgery. 10/24/2020 02:34:39 pm Titanic mandibular ameloblastoma: En-block resection and reconstruction. http://www.oapublishinglondon.com/article/1303 The article has been forwarded to the production team. The processing may take few weeks. Then the proof will be forwarded to the corresponding author. The final PDF and HTML files will be uploaded when the corrections to the proof are returned by the corresponding author. 10/24/2020 02:34:39 pm A review of the eruption of primary teeth. http://www.oapublishinglondon.com/article/1553 Eruption of primary teeth remains a rather sophisticated process. Eruption of the primary teeth may be divided into pre-eruptive tooth movement, eruptive tooth movement and post-occlusal tooth movement. Emergence of primaryteeth is usually accompanied by teething symptoms. Mechanisms for eruption arestill not entirely apparent. Proposed mechanisms included root elongation, hydrostatic pressure, periodontal ligament traction, bone remodeling and genetic pre-programming / cellular-molecular determinants. This paper gives a general overview of eruption of primary teeth and explores on its implications in age estimation of childrenand teething. 10/24/2020 02:34:39 pm Comparison between conventional complete dentures and implant retained mandibular overdentures: A review of literature. http://www.oapublishinglondon.com/article/1554 Purpose:This review article was conducted to analyze the available literature to compare efficacy, satisfaction and quality of life between conventional complete dentures (CCD) and mandibular overdentures (OD) retained by two unsplinted dental implants. Methods:An electronic search was conducted for key terms include: “complete dentures” or “conventional dentures” and “overdentures” or “implant retained dentures”. Abstracts were analyzed by two investigators to determine the articles that clearly compared the two modalities of treatment. These abstracts were then classified according to the level of evidence and study design by 2 calibrated investigators who had agreement on the classification. All papers involved in the final search were appraised to detect for methodological flaws and supported conclusions. Results: A total of 400 articles were obtained from the initial search.A total of 44 article abstracts were initially included for further investigation. Subsequently, fifteen abstracts comparing the two modalities of treatment were selected and reviewed in full. Following this step, 5 articles were excluded from this review due to methodological flaws and no supported conclusions; ten articles were included in this review. This included 7 randomized control trials (RCT), 2 case control studies and 1 cross-sectional study. Conclusion: Overall, patients treated with an OD retained by 2 unsplinted mandibular implants scored higher in satisfaction, quality of life, comfort, function and bite force than patients treated with a CCD. Further randomized control trials utilizingvalidated questionnaires, such as the OHIP, are necessary to evaluate these two modalities of treatment. 10/24/2020 02:34:39 pm Oral probiotics for dentistry. http://www.oapublishinglondon.com/article/1555 Aim: The potential application of probiotics for oral health has recently attracted the attention of several teams of researchers. Although clinicial studies have been conducted, the results to date could not safely suggest that probiotics could be useful in preventing and treating oral infections, including dental caries, periodontal disease and halitosis. This study aimed to review the body of knowledge relating to oral probiotics and to consider their effectiveness and selecting strains. Conclusion: Different probiotic strains, if manage to be active in the mouth, would be expected to have different mechanisms of action in the oral cavity as they have different modes of action, and some of the observed effects of the probiotic bacteria were indeed strain specific. On the other hand, all of positive effects of the  probiotic bacteria observed in studies were not specific for the probiotic strains but properties common to several species are even genera. In addition, previously reported probiotic properties beneficial to gut function do not necessarily correlate with probiotic activity in the oral cavity. We suggest it is also important to select newly isolated oral probiotic bacteria since the health benefits are varied among the strains. 10/24/2020 02:34:39 pm