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Tesamorelin – Benefits And Potential Side Effects

Tesamorelin is a synthetic growth hormone-releasing hormone analog used to treat visceral adiposity in HIV-infected individuals with lipodystrophy. Tesamorelin is administered subcutaneously and has significant effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, although it has not been associated with blood aminotransferase increases or clinically visible acute liver impairment.

What Is Tesamorelin?

Tesamorelin is a 44 amino acid synthetic polypeptide counterpart of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). Compared to natural GHRH, the N terminal region of the molecule has been changed to increase its stability and pharmacokinetics.

Tesamorelin activates GHRH receptors in the pituitary, resulting in the creation and release of growth hormone, which affects a variety of cells throughout the body, including hepatocytes, where it increases the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1).

IGF-1 mediates several of the actions of growth hormone, including growth, prevention of programmed cell death, glucose updating, and lipolysis in the liver. Serum IGF-1 levels are often low in people with obesity, diabetes, and, in particular, lipodystrophy.

Tesamorelin was tested and shown to be beneficial in reducing visceral adiposity in individuals with lipodystrophy associated with antiretroviral treatment for HIV infection.

Tesamorelin was licensed for use as a medication to decrease extra belly fat in HIV-infected individuals with antiviral drug-related lipodystrophy in the United States in 2010. Tesamorelin is also being studied as a potential treatment for insulin resistance, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver.

Tesamorelin is available as a solution under the trade name Egrifta. The suggested daily dosage is 2 mg administered subcutaneously. Although injection site reactions, itching, arthralgia, myalgia, and peripheral edema are uncommon, they may occur.

Tesamorelin elevates IGF-1 levels, which should be monitored throughout treatment. Potential, unusual side effects include malignant tumor growth promotion, glucose intolerance, diabetes, and hypersensitivity responses.

Tesamorelin injection vial
Tesamorelin injection vial

Tesamorelin Mechanism Of Action

Tesamorelin is a molecule that has been N-terminally modified based on the 44 amino acid sequence of human GHRH. This synthetically modified version is more powerful and stable than the original peptide.

It is also more resistant to dipeptidyl aminopeptidase cleavage than human GHRH. It increases the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), which promotes the manufacture and release of endogenous growth hormones.

The released growth hormones then attach to receptors on numerous human organs, regulating body composition. This control is primarily due to the interaction of anabolic and lipolytic processes. However, it has been shown that the primary functions by which Tesamorelin decreases body fat mass are lipolysis followed by triglyceride reduction.

How To Get Tesamorelin

Tesamorelin injection is available as a powder that must be combined with the liquid given with your prescription before being administered subcutaneously (under the skin).

It is typically injected once daily. Use the tesamorelin injection at the same time each day. Follow the instructions on your prescription label exactly, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to clarify any parts you don't understand.

Tesamorelin injection should be used precisely as indicated. Do not use more or less of it, or use it more often than your doctor has suggested.

Before using tesamorelin injection for the first time, read the patient information provided by the manufacturer.

Your medicine is packaged in two boxes: one containing tesamorelin injectable vials and the other containing vials containing liquid to mix with the drug, needles, and syringes.

Follow the instructions of your pharmacist or doctor on how to combine and inject the medicine. See your pharmacist or doctor if you have any concerns regarding injecting this medicine.

Tesamorelin should be injected under the navel into the skin of your stomach (belly button). Tesamorelin should not be injected into the navel or scarred, reddish, irritated, infected, or bruised skin regions.

Tesamorelin should not be injected into any locations with firm bumps from prior injections. To avoid bruising and discomfort, place each injection in a separate part. Keep note of where you inject tesamorelin and avoid injecting it in the same location twice in a succession.

Use the tesamorelin injection immediately after mixing it. After mixing, do not store tesamorelin injection. Throw away any used tesamorelin injections as well as any leftover liquid used to prepare the injection.

Always inspect the tesamorelin injectable solution (liquid) after mixing and before injecting it. The solution should be clear, colorless, and free of particles. If the tesamorelin injectable solution is colored, murky, or includes particles, or if the expiry date on the container has passed, do not use it.

Tesamorelin Benefits

Tesamorelin injection reduces the amount of excess fat in the stomach region in persons with HIV who have lipodystrophy (increased body fat in certain areas of the body).

Tesamorelin injection is not used to assist people in losing weight. Tesamorelin injection belongs to a family of drugs known as human growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) analogs. It works by boosting the production of a natural chemical that may help reduce body fat. Tesamorelin also has the following benefits:

  • Human growth hormone production is increased
  • Increases IGF-1 or Insulin Growth Factor-1 without changing glucose levels.
  • Triglycerides are reduced.
  • Visceral Adipose Tissue (VAT) is reduced
  • Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (cIMT) is reduced
  • Adults above the age of 60 have improved cognitive.

Tesamorelin Side Effects

A drug may have inevitable unintended side effects in addition to its intended benefits. Although not all of these adverse effects are possible, they may need medical treatment if they occur. Consult your doctor right away if any of the following negative symptoms arise:

More Common Side Effects

  • Muscle soreness or stiffness that makes it difficult to move
  • Discomfort in the arms or legs
  • Joint discomfort

Less Common Side Effects

  • Vision impairment
  • Feelings of burning, crawling, itching, numbness, prickling, "pins and needles," or tingling in all fingers save the smallest finger.
  • Chest discomfort
  • Dizziness rapid, erratic, pounding, or racing pulse or heartbeat
  • Headache
  • Nervousness
  • Slow or rapid heartbeat thumping in the ears
  • Unsteadiness or awkwardness in the arms, hands, legs, or feet due to joint swelling

Mild Side Effects

Some adverse effects may develop that might not need medical treatment. These adverse effects may subside as your body responds to the medication. Your doctor may also be able to advise you on how to avoid or mitigate some of these adverse effects. Consult your doctor if any of the following side effects persist or become bothersome or if you have any concerns about them:

  • Hives, infection, inflammation, itching, lumps, numbness, discomfort, rash, redness, scarring, soreness, stinging, swelling, tenderness, tingling, ulceration, or warmth at the injection site.
  • Aching or cramping muscles
  • Heartburn indigestion irritability acid or sour stomach belching bone ache discouragement sense of warmth feeling lonely or empty heartburn indigestion irritability
  • Skin itchiness and a lack of appetite
  • Lack of interest or enjoyment
  • Spasms of the muscles
  • Nausea, nocturnal sweats, rash, and redness of the face, neck, arms, and, on rare occasions, the upper chest
  • Sleeplessness
  • Joint stiffness
  • Stomach ache, uneasiness, or discomfort
  • Musculoskeletal strain
  • Fatigue due to excessive sweating
  • Difficulty focusing, difficulty sleeping, unable to sleep
  • Upper abdominal or stomach discomfort vomiting

Other adverse effects that have not been described may occur in some people. Check with your doctor if you detect any additional side effects.

Tesamorelin Contraindication

Tesamorelin medication is not recommended during pregnancy since it may promote glucose intolerance and raise the risk of type 2 diabetes. It is also prohibited during pregnancy (category X) since it may damage the baby. It is also not recommended for individuals with hypothalamic-pituitary axis disruption caused by pituitary gland tumor, brain irradiation, or hypopituitarism.

Tesamorelin Precautions

Before taking tesamorelin injection, take the following precautions: notify your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to tesamorelin injection, mannitol (Osmitrol), any other drugs, or any of the substances in tesamorelin injection. Request a list of the components from your pharmacist.

Inform your doctor and pharmacist about any other prescription and nonprescription drugs, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal items you are now taking or intend to use.

Make sure you include any of the following: Corticosteroids or hormonal steroids such as cortisone, dexamethasone (Decadron, Dexone), estrogen (Premarin, Prempro, others), methylprednisolone (Medrol), prednisone (Deltasone), progesterone (Prometrium), and testosterone (Androderm, Androgel, others). Your doctor may need to adjust the dosage of your drugs or closely monitor you for adverse effects.

Tell your doctor if you have or have ever had pituitary gland surgery, a pituitary gland tumor, or any other pituitary gland disorders.

Also, inform your doctor if you have or have ever had cancer, a growth, or a tumor. Your doctor may advise you against using tesamorelin injection.

Inform your doctor if you have diabetes, renal or liver problems, or if you have previously had diabetes.

Inform your doctor if you are pregnant, want to become pregnant, or are nursing. If you get pregnant while using tesamorelin injection, notify your doctor immediately. Tesamorelin may be harmful to the fetus. If you have HIV or are taking tesamorelin injections, you should not breastfeed.

Tell your doctor or dentist that you are taking tesamorelin injection if you are undergoing surgery, including dental surgery.

People Also Ask

How Much Tesamorelin Can I Take A Day?

Adults should take 2 milligrams injected under the skin once a day. The doctor must decide the use and dosage for youngsters.

When Should I Take Tesamorelin?

Tesamorelin injection is available as a powder that must be combined with the liquid given with your prescription before being administered subcutaneously (under the skin). It is typically injected once daily. Use the tesamorelin injection at the same time each day.

What Are The Side Effects Of Tesamorelin?

Injection site hypersensitivity (redness, itching, discomfort, irritation, swelling, bleeding, or bruising), muscular pains or spasms, depression, sleep difficulties (insomnia), night sweats, rash or itching, nausea, and vomiting are all common adverse effects.

What Is Tesamorelin Used For?

The hormone Tesamorelin is comparable to the one naturally secreted by the hypothalamus gland in the brain. It is used in people infected with the human immunodeficiency virus to remove excess fat (lipodystrophy) in the belly or stomach (HIV).


Overall, Tesamorelin is proven to have several health advantages. However, you must see your medical practitioners before taking any of it. Visit your physicians and healthcare providers regularly to see how you are progressing. Your doctor may prescribe blood testing and other laboratory tests to determine your overall health after using Tesamorelin.

About The Authors

Suleman Shah

Suleman Shah - Suleman Shah is a researcher and freelance writer. As a researcher, he has worked with MNS University of Agriculture, Multan (Pakistan) and Texas A & M University (USA). He regularly writes science articles and blogs for science news website immersse.com and open access publishers OA Publishing London and Scientific Times. He loves to keep himself updated on scientific developments and convert these developments into everyday language to update the readers about the developments in the scientific era. His primary research focus is Plant sciences, and he contributed to this field by publishing his research in scientific journals and presenting his work at many Conferences. Shah graduated from the University of Agriculture Faisalabad (Pakistan) and started his professional carrier with Jaffer Agro Services and later with the Agriculture Department of the Government of Pakistan. His research interest compelled and attracted him to proceed with his carrier in Plant sciences research. So, he started his Ph.D. in Soil Science at MNS University of Agriculture Multan (Pakistan). Later, he started working as a visiting scholar with Texas A&M University (USA). Shah’s experience with big Open Excess publishers like Springers, Frontiers, MDPI, etc., testified to his belief in Open Access as a barrier-removing mechanism between researchers and the readers of their research. Shah believes that Open Access is revolutionizing the publication process and benefitting research in all fields.

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