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Hard Tissue – Its Types And Where Is It Found?

Hard tissue (also known as calcified tissue) is mineralized tissue with a hard intercellular matrix.

Human hard tissues include bone, teeth, enamel, dentin, and cementum. In contrast to soft tissue, this word is used.

Hard Tissue Examples

Bone

Bone is a hard organ that is a component of the vertebrate skeleton.

Bones support and protect the body's organs, create red and white blood cells, store minerals, and allow movement.

A kind of thick connective tissue is bone tissue.

Bones have a complicated internal and exterior structure and exist in various forms and sizes.

They are lightweight yet sturdy and durable, and they serve many purposes.

Mineralized osseous tissue, also known as bone tissue, is classified into cortical and cancellous, and it provides stiffness and a coral-like three-dimensional interior structure.

Marrow, endosteum, periosteum, nerves, blood vessels, and cartilage tissue form present in bones.

Bone is a living tissue made up of many cells.

Osteoblasts are responsible for bone formation and mineralization, whereas osteocytes and osteoclasts are responsible for bone reabsorption.

The mineralized matrix of bone tissue has an organic component mainly composed of collagen and an inorganic part consisting of different salts.

Enamel

Enamel is the most challenging component in the human body and includes the most significant number of minerals, 96 percent, with the remainder of water and biological stuff.

Hydroxyapatite, a crystalline calcium phosphate, is the main mineral.

Enamel is the most challenging component in the human body and has the most significant mineral content.

It forms on the tooth as it develops inside the gums before erupting into the mouth.

One of the critical problems of dentistry is the preservation and restoration of human tooth enamel.

Remineralization of teeth may cure tooth damage to some extent but cannot be restored by the body.

In humans, enamel thickness varies over the tooth's surface, thickest at the cusp (up to 2.5 mm) and thinnest at the cementoenamel junction.

Dentin

Dentin comprises 70% mineral hydroxyapatite, 20% organic material, and 10% water by weight.

The translucency of enamel strongly influences the color of a tooth.

Dentin, which is less calcified and brittle than enamel, is required for enamel support.

Dentin has a mineral hardness rating of 3 on the Mohs scale.

Cementum

Cementum is softer than dentin and comprises 45 to 50 percent inorganic material (hydroxyapatite) and 50 to 55 percent organic matter and water by weight.

The organic part is mainly made up of collagen and proteoglycans.

Cementum is avascular, taking sustenance from the surrounding vascular periodontal ligament via its own embedded cells.

The cementum is a pale yellow substance that is somewhat lighter in color than the dentin.

It has the most fluoride of any mineralized tissue.

Cementum is also permeable to a wide range of materials.

It is continually created throughout life because a fresh layer of cementum is deposited to maintain the connection as the surface layer of cementum ages.

Cementum covers the apical foramen and may extend somewhat into the pulp canal's inner wall.

Hard Tissue That Protects Organs

The skeleton is a strong structure of bones that supports and protects the body's delicate organs.

Bone is a hard organ that is a component of the vertebrate skeleton.

Bones support and protect the body's organs, create red and white blood cells, store minerals, and allow movement.

A kind of thick connective tissue is bone tissue.

People Also Ask

What Is Soft And Hard Tissue?

Hard tissue often refers to bones, while soft tissue includes muscle, ligaments, tendons, and connective tissue.

Any bone in the body, including the skull and spine, may suffer from hard tissue injury.

What Is The Hardest Tissue In The Body?

Overall, the enamel is the hardest tissue in our bodies, and scientists have been studying its structure and composition for decades.

Our teeth's enamel also withstands significant acid-base variations, some of which are caused by numerous populations of bacteria that develop in our mouths.

What Is Hard Tissue Made Of?

The organic phase of hard tissues is mainly composed of collagen, a protein. Polysaccharides serve as a binding agent between osteons.

Conclusion

The fundamental function of most hard tissues is to be stiff.

Mineralization of a soft organic matrix is the ubiquitous mechanism for obtaining high stiffness outside arthropods.

However, stiffening has the unfavorable mechanical effect of brittleness (lack of toughness).

In evolutionary terms, the mineralization of specific tissues, such as bone and dentine, may be readily adjusted to generate the optimal balance of stiffness and bending strength (which, until at the greatest mineralizations, go together) on the one hand and toughness on the other.

However, mineralization seems all-or-nothing in most other tissues, including mollusk shell, echinoderm skeleton, brachiopod shell, barnacle shell, and enamel.

About The Authors

Suleman Shah

Suleman Shah - Suleman Shah is a researcher and freelance writer. As a researcher, he has worked with MNS University of Agriculture, Multan (Pakistan) and Texas A & M University (USA). He regularly writes science articles and blogs for science news website immersse.com and open access publishers OA Publishing London and Scientific Times. He loves to keep himself updated on scientific developments and convert these developments into everyday language to update the readers about the developments in the scientific era. His primary research focus is Plant sciences, and he contributed to this field by publishing his research in scientific journals and presenting his work at many Conferences. Shah graduated from the University of Agriculture Faisalabad (Pakistan) and started his professional carrier with Jaffer Agro Services and later with the Agriculture Department of the Government of Pakistan. His research interest compelled and attracted him to proceed with his carrier in Plant sciences research. So, he started his Ph.D. in Soil Science at MNS University of Agriculture Multan (Pakistan). Later, he started working as a visiting scholar with Texas A&M University (USA). Shah’s experience with big Open Excess publishers like Springers, Frontiers, MDPI, etc., testified to his belief in Open Access as a barrier-removing mechanism between researchers and the readers of their research. Shah believes that Open Access is revolutionizing the publication process and benefitting research in all fields.

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