Persimmon - An Increase Through New Food Products
Worldwide, several nations consume persimmons (Diospyros kaki L.). After China, Spain, South Korea, Japan, Azerbaijan, and Brazil are the next biggest persimmon producers in the world.
In different regions of the world, various persimmon kinds are grown.
In China, Fuyu, Hana-Fuju, Jiro, Yongding, Hohrenbo, Ichidagaki, and Mopan are grown in China; Kaki Tipo is typical of Italy; and Rojo Brillante and Triumph are grown in Spain.
Varieties such as Tone Wase, Hachiya, and Saijo are extensively grown in Japan.
The bio-physiological properties of persimmon fruit, such as its antioxidation, hypolipidemia, arteriosclerosis prevention, anticancer, and antiviral activity, have received the majority of recent attention in studies.
Even so, every year thousands of tons of persimmon fruits are thrown away because of high production rates, strict quality standards, and consumer expectations about shape, size, and color.
Persimmons are a seasonal fruit that spoils quickly and is hard to store and move. They also don't last long.
So, making new derived goods is necessary to deal with persimmon surpluses, persimmon fruits that are damaged, and persimmon fruits that consumers don't want.
Persimmons are orange or reddish-brown in color and resemble little, flat tomatoes.
Their flavor is reputed to be sweet and textured. Persimmons typically come in two sorts: astringent variants and non-astringent ones.
Astringent persimmons are recognized for their high levels of tannins, which give the unripe fruit a bitter, dry flavor.
Astringent persimmons must mature before being eaten. On the other hand, a cultivar that is also high in tannins but non-astringent can be eaten unripe.
The scientific family of persimmons is called Diospyros. As more knowledge about ancient cultures has become available, thanks to anthropology and archaeology, different kinds of persimmons have been categorized into the following groups:
- Japanese persimmon
- American persimmon
- Black persimmon
- Date-plum tree
- Indian persimmon
With a few noteworthy exceptions, such as fiber content and trace levels of unique organic compounds, all of these persimmons have essentially the same basic nutritional value and health advantages.
Persimmons go by a variety of common names and monikers, such as "Jove's Fire," "The Fruit of the Gods," and "Nature's Candy."
Persimmons can be consumed raw, cooked, dried, or fresh. However, each preparation method alters the flavor.
They are typically sweet and pulpy. If given enough time to mature completely, the flesh is practically spoon-able.
Persimmons have been linked to a number of health benefits, which we will examine in more depth below:
Due to the potential inclusion of vitamin C, it might help strengthen immunity. One persimmon has about 80% of the recommended daily intake of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), making it one of the fruits with the greatest ascorbic acid concentration.
Vitamin C boosts the immune system and increases the production of white blood cells, which are the body's main line of defense against microbial, viral, and fungal infections as well as foreign objects or toxins.
White blood cells also help the body fight off infections from other organisms.
Like most fruits, persimmons are a good source of fiber, with just one serving providing about 20% of the daily need.
By giving stools greater weight, promoting peristaltic activity to move food through the digestive tract, increasing gastric and digestive juice production, and alleviating constipation and diarrhea symptoms, fiber aids in the body's more effective digestion of food.
Overall, a high-fiber fruit like persimmon can greatly benefit your digestive system and shield you from colon cancer and other ailments of a similar nature.
It can also help people lose weight by keeping them from taking in too much fat, which can lead to obesity.
The ingredients in persimmons can also be good for your eyes' health! B-complex vitamins contain the carotenoid alcohol zeaxanthin, a typical molecule.
This group of vitamins is well recognized to be abundant in persimmons.
Another mineral that is present in persimmons in considerable amounts is potassium.
Potassium has the potential to increase blood flow to different regions of the body by acting as a vasodilator, which lowers blood pressure.
Low blood pressure may also lessen the burden on the heart and aid in fending off numerous heart-related ailments.
Carbohydrates, fiber, organic acids, phenolic compounds, and carotenoids—which have antioxidant, cytotoxic, and anti-diabetic properties—are the most notable macro and micronutrients found in persimmon.
Scientific research suggests that foods high in bioactive chemicals, including persimmon, lower the incidence of kidney disease, colon and rectal cancer, as well as cardiovascular disease.
Also, fiber and other ingredients help control weight gain and obesity, lower the risk of type II diabetes, control the glycemic index, and lower the risk of heart disease.
The ability of any substance to postpone or suppress the oxidation of substrates can be referred to as an antioxidant in food.
Clinical and epidemiological research has demonstrated the health benefits of specific micronutrients and secondary metabolites found in fruits and vegetables due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypocholesterolemic properties.
Since foods with strong antioxidant activity have health advantages, there is a correlation between consumption and disease incidence; the higher the intake, the lower the incidence of diseases.
Most of the micronutrients and secondary metabolites that have antioxidant activity are phenolic compounds, carotenoids, vitamins that dissolve in water or fat, and phytochemicals.
Because of its high concentration of phenolic compounds (particularly tannins), carotenoids, and water-soluble vitamins like vitamin C, persimmon is a fruit with a higher antioxidant capability than most.
When compared to other fruits like apples (110 mol Trolox/g), blueberries (187 mol Trolox/g), or strawberries (163 mol Trolox/g), research has shown that persimmons have a far higher antioxidant potential (406 mol Trolox/g).
Secondary metabolites known as phenolic compounds are those that include at least one phenol group in their structure and can be either extractable (soluble) or non-extractable (insoluble).
Non-extractable polyphenols (NEP) are retained in the residue following the extraction of extractable polyphenols (EP), which makes them present in the food matrix. Extractable polyphenols (EP) are soluble in water-soluble organic solvents.
Despite being bioactive chemicals with potential health benefits, NEPs are frequently disregarded. The majority of EP and NEP are flavonoids and non-flavonoids.
Persimmon has a variety of flavonoids, including monomeric flavan-3-ols (catechin, epicatechin, and epigallocatechin) and polymerized proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins), which can have different structures (dimers, oligomers, and polymers).
Non-flavonoid polyphenols (phenolic acids) have also been discovered, including derivatives of benzoic and cinnamic acids, ferulic, coumaric, and gallic acids.
Furthermore, extractable proanthocyanidins, along with other flavonoids and phenolic acids, are part of the complex mixture of low-molecular-weight monomeric chemicals that make up EP.
NEP stands for non-extractable high-molecular proanthocyanidins and low-molecular polyphenols that are attached to polysaccharides and proteins in cell walls and stuck in the food matrix.
Dietary fiber is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as carbohydrate polymers with 10 or more monomeric units that are partially or completely fermented in the large intestine by the action of microbes but are not hydrolyzed by endogenous enzymes of the human small intestine. There are two types of dietary fiber in total: soluble and insoluble.
Soluble fiber is fermented in the colon, favoring the formation of intestinal flora, accelerating intestinal transit, and lowering blood cholesterol and glucose levels.
Insoluble fiber is poorly fermented and has a noticeable laxative and intestinal regulating effect.
Both the peel and the pulp of persimmons contain fiber, soluble and insoluble, with the peel containing the majority of it.
In recent years, persimmon fruits have become more industrialized so that they can be used to make a wide range of products, and more research has been done on these items.
The most significant processed persimmon products are dried persimmons in a variety of forms.
They can be used as a valued element in a variety of dishes or eaten straight up as a snack, which makes them fascinating for consumers and international markets.
Fruit can be eaten at any time of the year because drying stops microbes from growing and biochemical reactions from starting.
In Asia (China, South Korea, and Japan), entire persimmons have long been naturally dried to create a product with good sensory and nutritional qualities that is frequently consumed and commercially produced.
The fruit is first stripped of the calix sepals and skin and then hung on strings in order to prepare this dried product.
Near the end of the drying process, dried fruit is kneaded in China and Japan to distribute moisture evenly throughout the fruit and create the shape of the completed product.
However, they aren't kneaded in South Korea; instead, they are just allowed to hang in a well-ventilated space.
The sensory characteristics, ripeness, and varietal characteristics of the fruit utilized determine the quality of the puree.
Persimmon fruits are noteworthy for having a high degree of dietary fiber and astringent polyphenols, which can frequently make digestion challenging.
When making a puree, fibers must be removed; also, the presence of seeds might have an impact on processing and product quality.
Hafizov made persimmon puree with the Gosho, Hachiya, and Hiakume cultivars.
He noticed that using persimmon fruits without seeds improved the color and yield of the puree.
When heated and then chilled, the gel-like consistency of persimmon puree tends to strengthen, generating aggregates and syneresis.
Using the commercial enzyme Viscozyme L during enzymatic incubation can stop gelation and make the persimmon puree more fluid so that it doesn't gel when heated.
Persimmon juice is a new, healthy commercial juice that is making its way into the juice market as a potential diet supplement.
However, because persimmon juice products include high levels of tannins and pectin, which degrade the quality of the fruit, they are still hard to find on the market.
One of the most frequent problems with processing persimmon juice is limited juice production, which can be brought on by a high pectin concentration.
A traditional way to solve this problem is to add extra enzymes, mostly pectinases like pectin methyl esterase or polygalacturonase, to increase the yield of fruit juice, clear up the juice, and increase membrane flow during ultrafiltration.
Gallic acid and catechins are two polyphenols found in abundance in persimmon vinegar, which is made from fermented persimmon fruit.
These compounds guard against the oxidative stress that hydrogen peroxide causes in cells.
Recent research has shown that persimmon vinegar, which has a lot of potential in the health food sector, contains anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory characteristics.
Using radical-scavenging assays, Sakanaka and Ishihara evaluated the antioxidant capacities of persimmon vinegar with those of various commercial vinegars (unpolished rice vinegar, polished rice vinegar, and apple vinegar).
The vinegars that were put to the test were powerful antioxidants, but the persimmon vinegars from the astringent persimmon (var. Saijo) had the greatest capacity to scavenge free radicals.
According to Gorinstein, consuming one medium-sized persimmon (100 grams) per day is sufficient to combat atherosclerosis.
Insisting that individuals incorporate other fruits into their diets as well, she quickly adds that these too help prevent heart disease.
When used sparingly, persimmon does not have any harmful side effects. However, some people may be allergic to these fruits and display symptoms of nausea, upset stomach, or in extreme cases, anaphylactic shock; they should therefore avoid eating persimmons.
It is not advised to eat more than one persimmon or 100 grams of fruit in a single day. Persimmons can cause intestinal blockages, nausea, vomiting, and constipation if you eat too many of them.
Provitamin A beta-carotene, which has been linked to a lower risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women, is abundant in persimmons.
In addition to maintaining healthy vision, vitamin A also supports a healthy heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organ function.
The exponential increase in persimmon production in recent years has been correlated with significant postharvest losses.
The biggest problem facing the persimmon industry right now is finding ways to get the most value out of the fruit that is thrown away.
This would create opportunities, make the system more sustainable, and help the circular economy.
It is becoming more popular in food science research to develop foods from fruit surpluses or by-products that are rich in bioactive chemicals.
The various studies presented in this review have demonstrated the possible use of persimmon surpluses and by-products in creating novel culinary products and foods.
Due to its abundance of nutrients and bioactive substances (phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and dietary fiber) with bio-physiological functions including antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antidiabetic qualities, persimmon can add value to food products.