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Epidemiological Depression - Its Relationship With Diabetes

Epidemiological depression is not simply a bad mood; rather, it is a serious medical condition. When someone is depressed, it is much more challenging for them to carry out daily activities and to function normally.

Depression is associated with significant negative effects on both a person's physical and mental health.

The management of diabetes type 1 or type 2, as well as other chronic autoimmune disorders, can be extremely challenging due to the numerous obstacles and setbacks that can arise.

The constant vigilance that is required to maintain blood sugar, the navigation of health care systems, drug side effects, and other connected health issues can lead to feelings of hopelessness.

If depression is not treated, it can lead a person to make poor lifestyle choices, which in turn can wreak havoc on their physical health.

Talk to a medical professional if you experience one or more of these symptoms for more than two weeks at a time.

What Is Depression?

Depression is a condition that affects a person's mood as well as their energy levels. It is a mental health disorder. It frequently makes normal activities and functioning difficult or impossible to complete. If it is not treated, it can even cause a person to kill themselves.

The field of mental health that deals with depressive disorders is a complicated one. There are many risk factors for depression, including genetics, trauma, and substance abuse.

A lady wearing a grey t-shirt and a blue jean pant sitting on the floor with one hand on her head and the other across her legs
A lady wearing a grey t-shirt and a blue jean pant sitting on the floor with one hand on her head and the other across her legs

What Are The Different Types Of Depression?

Do you worry that you or someone you care about might be depressed? Do you not know what kind it is that you have? The following is an overview of the various types of depression.

Major Depressive Disorder

The majority of people, when they talk about depression, are probably thinking of a specific disorder known as major depressive disorder (MDD) or clinical depression. This can be recognized by recurrent feelings of depression, in addition to other symptoms, such as:

  • Low energy
  • Feeling worthless or guilty
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Sleeping too much or too little
  • Loss of interest in normal activities
  • Weight loss or gain
  • Feeling restless
  • Thoughts of death or suicide

These symptoms need to be present at least once per day for a period of two weeks or longer at a time in order to make a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD).

Persistent Depressive Disorder

Persistent depressive disorder, or dysthymia, is often confused with major depressive disorder due to similar symptoms. There are important distinctions, though.

Persistent depressive disorder (PDD) is characterized by a nearly constant depressed mood for at least two years.

Psychotic Depression

Major depressive disorder symptoms mixed with psychotic episodes are referred to as psychotic depression. Psychosis is characterized by hallucinations, which can be auditory or visual, as well as delusions, which are false or irrational beliefs. Individuals who suffer from psychotic depression may also have a paranoid frame of mind.

Situational Depression

Situational depression isn't a depressive disorder because it's triggered by a negative life event and is often short-term. Nevertheless, mental health treatment may be helpful for those who experience situational depression. Talk to your doctor if you're having trouble coping with a loss or major change (death, divorce, job loss, health problems, etc.). It might be a case of situational depression.

Atypical Depression

You might have atypical depression if you exhibit the signs of major depressive disorder but get momentary relief from happy events in your life. The main characteristic that sets it apart from MDD is that positive events make one's mood better. Despite favorable external circumstances, people with MDD frequently experience depression.

Postpartum Depression

Following the birth of a child, new parents may exhibit depressive symptoms. Postpartum depression (PPD) can affect men as well as women, despite what most people believe. PPD is different from "the baby blues," a common term for the normal sadness that follows the birth of a new baby.

Men and women experience postpartum depression in different ways. Along with the typical symptoms of depression, women may also experience the following signs and symptoms:

  • Feeling disconnected from the baby
  • Feeling as though they are not the mother
  • Not having interest in their baby
  • Thoughts of hurting themselves or their baby
  • Feeling like a bad parent

Men, on the other hand, frequently feel more agitated and angry. They might exhibit aggressive behavior, engage in drug or alcohol use, and express physical discomfort.

Make an appointment for treatment if any of these symptoms persist for more than two weeks. Your capacity to care for your child may be impacted by postpartum depression.

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

With their menstrual cycle, some women develop depression. The symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) appear around the beginning of a woman's period. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms like cramps, bloating, irritability, and mood swings are frequently present along with this.

Hormonal changes that occur during a woman's menstrual cycle are probably what cause premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Symptoms are normal around this time of the month, but women should see a doctor if they interfere with normal functioning.

Seasonal Affective Disorder

The change in seasons is what causes seasonal affective disorder (SAD). However, it can also happen in the spring and summer. The majority of people experience symptoms in the fall and winter. For the majority of SAD sufferers, the shorter winter days result in a decrease in serotonin levels, which sets off depressive symptoms. Additionally, some people may experience an imbalance in their melatonin levels, which can result in either more or less sleep.

Many of the symptoms of major depressive disorder, such as depressed mood, low energy, loss of interest in activities, difficulty concentrating, and even suicidal thoughts, are shared by people with SAD. The distinctive pattern of depressive moods makes this type of depression easy to identify. Seasonal affective disorder may be the cause of your symptoms if they appear to change with the seasons.

The Effect Of Epidemiological Depression On Diabetes

Diabetes and depression are related. Depression symptoms like not wanting to do anything or see anyone can affect diabetes management. Poor diabetes management is possible. This may mean not taking medication or testing blood sugar, missing doctor appointments, or ignoring health problems. Complications could result from any of these.

About one in four adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes have significant depressive symptoms, and 10%–15% are diagnosed. Due to methodological differences in defining depression, prevalence estimates vary.

In some studies, "depression" refers to self-reported high depressive symptom scores; in others, it's a psychiatric interview diagnosis. "Diabetic-related distress" captures the emotional suffering associated with diabetes self-management, social support, and medical treatment. This concept was weakly linked to depressive symptoms, with 30% overlapping variance, but was separate from depression in terms of adherence and glycemic control.

A man in a black and white effect holding his head and covering his face with his hands
A man in a black and white effect holding his head and covering his face with his hands

According to a meta-analysis of 11 studies involving over 50,000 people with type 2 diabetes who did not have depression at baseline, depression is 24 percent higher in diabetics. Once depression is diagnosed, its symptoms seem to persist.

Peyrot and Rubin found that 73% of patients reported depressed symptoms 12 months after a diabetic education program. Over 5 years, Lustman and colleagues found a 79% relapse rate for severe depression.

These findings contrast with general population research estimating a depressive episode lasts 8–12 weeks, implying depressive episodes in diabetic patients are longer-lasting and more severe.

A meta-analysis of 9 cohort studies found that adults with depression had a 37% increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. There was heterogeneity across studies, with risks ranging from 1.03 to 2.50. A meta-analysis of 13 studies found incident depression was 15% higher in people with diabetes at baseline.

Many nurses are familiar with the two-item depression exam, which asks if patients are sad or have lost interest in routine tasks. If the patient answers yes to either question, a validated questionnaire such as the patient health questionnaire or hospital anxiety and depression scale is used to determine depressive symptom severity. A positive result on either test doesn't always indicate depression, but it does mean the patient should see a therapist.

People Also Ask

Is There A Correlation Between Diabetes And Depression?

You are more likely to experience depression if you have diabetes, either type 1 or type 2. Furthermore, your likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes may be higher if you're depressed. The good news is that depression and diabetes can be treated simultaneously.

Why Do People With Diabetes Have Depression?

Depression may develop as a result of changes in brain chemistry linked to diabetes, according to some theories. People with diabetes may experience depression as a result of, among other things, damage brought on by diabetic neuropathy or blocked blood vessels in the brain.

What Is The Epidemiology Of Diabetes About?

The prevalence of obesity and unhealthy lifestyles has increased globally, contributing to the high and rising disease burden associated with diabetes in every nation. According to the most recent projections, there were 382 million cases of diabetes worldwide in 2013; by 2035, that number is predicted to reach 592 million.

Does Low Sugar Cause Depression?

Hypoglycemia is a condition where there is not enough blood sugar to support normal bodily functions. Even skeptics acknowledge that hypoglycemia can lead to weakness, mental dullness, confusion, and fatigue, despite the fact that it is universally acknowledged as a factor in depression.

Conclusion

Current research suggests that people with diabetes have an increased risk of developing epidemiological depression. However, further studies are required to establish the nature of the relationship between depression, glycaemic control, and the development of diabetes complications and to make appropriate recommendations for treatment and to support self-management of diabetes.

About The Authors

Suleman Shah

Suleman Shah - Suleman Shah is a researcher and freelance writer. As a researcher, he has worked with MNS University of Agriculture, Multan (Pakistan) and Texas A & M University (USA). He regularly writes science articles and blogs for science news website immersse.com and open access publishers OA Publishing London and Scientific Times. He loves to keep himself updated on scientific developments and convert these developments into everyday language to update the readers about the developments in the scientific era. His primary research focus is Plant sciences, and he contributed to this field by publishing his research in scientific journals and presenting his work at many Conferences. Shah graduated from the University of Agriculture Faisalabad (Pakistan) and started his professional carrier with Jaffer Agro Services and later with the Agriculture Department of the Government of Pakistan. His research interest compelled and attracted him to proceed with his carrier in Plant sciences research. So, he started his Ph.D. in Soil Science at MNS University of Agriculture Multan (Pakistan). Later, he started working as a visiting scholar with Texas A&M University (USA). Shah’s experience with big Open Excess publishers like Springers, Frontiers, MDPI, etc., testified to his belief in Open Access as a barrier-removing mechanism between researchers and the readers of their research. Shah believes that Open Access is revolutionizing the publication process and benefitting research in all fields.

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